Exotics- Reptiles- 1

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-09-08 16:49

Reptile History and Physical Exam. (HTRS= helpful things Rush said)

Question Answer
what are some questions you should ask about environmental history?enclosure security, temp, light, substrate, humidity, hidebox, diet
reptiles and amphibians are "extotherms," which influences their... (what body stuff?)metabolism, immune system, and b/h
What are the average temperature ranges for day and night, for TEMPERATE and DESERT reptiles?TEMPERATE DAY: 80-90F. DESERT DAY: 85-95F. TEMPERATE NIGHT: 70-75F DESERT NIGHT: 70-75 (*there might be species differences outside of these ranges)
Humidity is important for reptiles. How can you measure the humidity, and what are the needed humidity ranges for sub-tropical, temperate, and desert reptiles?measure humidity with a HYGROMETER. subtropical humidity needs: 70-90%. Temperate: 60-80%. Desert: 30-50%
what are some problems that can occur if the humidity is too low?dehydration, dysecdysis (difficult shedding), (which can lead to) toe necrosis/restriction
what kinda substrate is a big no-no?CEDAR AND PINE SHAVINGS ARE A NO-NO! There are aeromatic oils which hurt resp, and are toxic and potentially carcinogenic
HTRS: which type of material that enclosures can be made out of is particularly problematic, especially with iguanas?WIRE ENCLOSURES! Iguanas hang their toes in there, and the wire can cut their toes etc when theyre big and weigh a lot. Also the wire can heat up from the lights and get too hot and possibly burn the critters
what are some techniques you can use to increase the humidity?soak pans, spray bottles, bottle containers, liver plants (caution: make sure plants aren't toxic to your animal)
what is a POTZ? How do you establish a POTZ? (Examples)"Preferred Optimal Temperature Zone." There are two different kinds of sources of heat: (1) RADIANT heat: bulbs/ceramic. (2) SURFACE heaters: heat pads (NOT HOT ROCKS FOR THE LOVE OF GOD)
what are some tools you can use to measure temperature/ambient enviro of tank, and what must you keep in mind about these tools for measuring?thermometer for temp and hygrometer for humidity... you must keep in mind the LOCATION IN THE TANK of these tools...put it where the animal is usually hanging out so you know the actual temp...and one in the cold end and one in the hot end!
which heating product should you never use?HEAT ROCKS ARE DEATH ROCKS. BIG NONONONONO. they short out, get too hot, and burn your reptile (don't know better when to move because move based on core temp, and these are so hot that they burn skin before the core temp rises)
what must you know about the lighting requirements of reptiles?they need FULL SPECTRUM! That is UVA and UVB!!
what do reptiles specifically need UVB?Reptiles undergo "cutenous photolysis" in which they use the UVB to take 7 dehydrocholesterol (previtamin D3) and convert it into the vitamin D they need. If they don't get this, they'll get metabolic bone dz (aka secondary hyperparathyroidism)
how should you position the bulb for a reptile enclosure? How long should you run the light? how often should you change the blub?you would position the bulb 6-18"s away from the top (depending on the bulb, read the box), and NOT SHINING THROUGH GLASS (glass will block the UVA and UVB). You should have the light on a 12-14 hour photo-period (depending on season). Also, you should change the bulb EVERY 6 MONTHS, EVEN IF IT ISN'T BURNED OUT (the UV effects wear out)
what should you base your substrate choice/depth around?the b/h of the animal! Also: If they can eat it, don't get it!
pros and cons of spagnum mossPro: keep your air moist and warm. Con: yeast likes moist and warm
what should you know about aromatic substrate?DANGEROUS. don't do it.
name off some various types of substratepaper, turf, woodchips, moss, sand
what are the major benefits of cage furniture?(1) REDUCE STRESS (stress can cause immunocompromise, esp. in exotics). (2) provides shealter (3) assists with shedding (something for them to rub up on).
cage furniture should be chosen based on animal's needs. Name some types of reptiles which would need different cage furnitureIs the pet arboreal (lives in trees)? Is it terrestrial (lives on ground)? Is is fossorial (likes to burrow under stuff)?
HTRS: Driftwood is awesome for cage furniture!hooray!
what must you be careful about with cage furniture (sanitation related)THAT FURNITURE STAYS WITH THAT REPTILE! don't give furniture to different reptile, might transmit diseases.
what are three things you must do/consider for your sanitation regimen?(1) REMOVE FECAL MATERIAL REGULARLY (duh). (2) Exchange substrate on a regular basis (3) disinfect things
what can you use to disinfect the case/furniture what? what must you keep in mind while doing this?REMOVE ANIMAL FROM CAGE WHILE DISINFECTING! can use bleach, chlorhexidine, trifectant (vetoquinol, also sold as virkon)
If your setup includes an AQUATIC environment, what 8 things must you keep in mind?Chlorine content, pH, alkalinity, hardness, RO (reverse osmosis), temperature, filtration, water quality parameter checks should be done regularly.
If you have an aquatic setup, what are 4 types of filtration systems you can consider?Mechanical, chemical, biological, ozone/UV sterilizer
what might you be concerned about if you are using a biological filter?higher risk for ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, bacteria
when would you want to use a ozone/UV sterilizer?for larger systems
for LIZARDS, what should the size of the enclosure be?WIDTH should be 50% of the animals length. LENGTH should be 2xs the animals length.
for SNAKES, should the size of the enclosure be? What else should you make sure with the enclosure?SNAKES ARE ESCAPE ARTISTS-- make sure the cage is THOROUGHLY secured. The perimeter of the tank should be 2xs the length of the snakes body.
HTRS: if you're worried about snakes biting you when feeding them in the cage, what is a super awesome solution?have a door you use exclusively for feeding them through, and the other door you do everything else through. They know where the food comes out then.
Chelonians include what animals?tortoises, turtles, and terrapins
What are some problems (and their sequelae) caused by an enclosure being too small? How can you prevent the problems caused by an enclosure being too small?it can lead to ROSTRAL ABRASIONS, which if they get infected, can lead to osetomyelitis. PREVENTION can be obtained by reducing visuals (with lighting, covering class, or making break patterns in the glass).
inappropriate POTZ (preferred optimal temperature zone)--> too cold: This can lead to what problems? what are some of the treatments for these problems?It can lead to hypothermia, and anorexia, and it can cause them to be IMMUNOCOMPROMSED---> abscess formation. You treat these abscesses with removal, culture, antimicrobials, and supportive care
HTRS: why can you only remove abscesses, and not drain them?because reptiles lack the enzyme to liquify caseous material, so they are dry and hard and need to be manually removed.
inappropriate POTZ (preferred optimal temperature zone)--> AKA inappropriate ETR (what does this stand for?) TOO HOT: what happens and what are the sequalae? How do you treat?ETR= environmental temperature range. When it gets too hot they can get hyperthermia, and if it is a heating element which was the problem (ESP A HOT ROCK,) they can get thermal burns. If this happens you must treat contaminated wounds, use antimicrobials (local and systemic), and use supportive care
housing considerations--> animal density. What did she caution with this?do not maintain multiple animals together
what should you know about live prey feeding?(1) ethical considerations-- the prey doesnt have a chance. (2) Danger to the reptile- a not-hungry snake wont eat live prey, and the live prey will eat IT (see pic of snake with all its skin eaten off). Look into pre-kill methods.
what happens if the water quality is poor due to poor filtration?can lead to contamination (high microbe count), high ammonia, and pH fluctuations.
what should you know about turtle shells?THEY ARE BONE. If they get infected (say, from poor water quality) they have an OSTEOMYELITIS!! BAD NEWS!
what is the one omnivorous reptile?box turtles
what are the two insectivorous reptiles?chameleons and anoles
are water turtles insectivores, herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores?most water turtles are carnivores
are monitor lizards insectivores, herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores?carnivores
are iguanids insectivores, herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores?herbivores
are spiny tailed lizards (uromastix spp) insectivores, herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores?herbivores
are chuckwallas insectivores, herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores?herbivores
are prehensile tailed skinks insectivores, herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores?herbivores
are tortoises insectivores, herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores?herbivores, with a few exceptions
name a chelonia that's dangerousaligator snappers
name three types of lizards that are dangerousheloderma horridum (beaded lizard), heloderma (genus of venemous lizards, like the gila monster), and komodo dragon (And other monitors)
what is some specalized equipment you'd need for handling dangerous reptiles?snake hook, container, antivenoms, snake tubes, experienced handlers!!
What is tail autonomy??This happens in lizards! It is tail loss as an antipredator response. The lizard is able to evade predation because the tail comes off and they can run away, and the tail moves and is usually brightly colored so distracts the predator. TAKE AWAY MESSAGE: don't grab the lizard by the tail!!!
what happens after the tail of a lizard gets pulled off?it does technically grow back, but it is replaced by a cartilage center and it is more blunted and less patterned
what types of lizards (and some specific species) will lose their tails?iguanids, geckos (agamids, monitors, true chameleons)
what is a particular thing you need to worry about with geckos and handling? how can you prevent this?gecko skin tears very easily! you can use a small plastic tube for handling
what is a super useful way to handle iguanas specifically?"iguana burrito"- fold the limbs against the body, avoid tail and claws
large constricter snakes bigger than _________ or wider than _________ should not be handled alone>8 feet or wider than an arm
what kinda snakes have caudal autonomy?not many do, only a few boids (family boas are in)
what are some tools you can use to handle/restrain snakes? how would you hold them?Snake hooks, tongs(CAN HURT SNAKE WITH TOO MucH PRESSURE WITH TONGS), tubes, towels... hold immediately behind the head firmly. ALWAYS SUPPORT AT LEAST 1/3 OF SNAKES BODY
how do you restrain chelonians?for water turtles, avoid mouth and front claws! sedation may be necessary for a full physical exam (ESP if it's an oral exam)
how is a PLR (pupillary light reflex) different with reptiles?there is 100% decussation (no consensual pupillary response), and the pupil will restriction quickly (STRIATED mm instead of smooth)
which reptiles lack a palpebral reflex? Corneal reflex?absent in snakes and some geckos (they lack eyelids). This means they also lack a corneal reflex
HTRS: how to get things to stop biting?try to spray some listerine in their mouths
how would you NOT want to sedate a tortoise?dont bother trying to gas them-- they can hold their breath for like forever
so if snakes don't have eyelids, what do they have? What unique problem can this present?they have a "spectacle" aka brille, which is a clear scale which goes over the eye. There is a potential space between the brille and the cornea. However, if they molt the old spectacle can get stuck to the new one-- DONT PULL IT OFF you can rip off the new one too. An ascending infection from the mouth can make it's way between the brille and the cornea. this can lead to subspecular abscesses
what is a parietal eye? what is it's purpose? who has the parietal eye? what husbandry related thing must you keep in mind with spp with a paretial eye?it is a degenerate eye (primordial kinda) which is on the dorsal midline on the top of the head. It connects to the pineal gland! LIZARDS have it, and what it does is regulate the time the lizard basks. Because of the location of this eye, all lizards should be given an OVERHEAD light/heat source
what should you think if you see crystalline salts around the nostrils of a reptile?this is normal in iguanids and other species.... it might signify dehydration, or it could be normal.

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