Exotics Quiz 1 (Avian) 2017

moonlup's version from 2017-01-25 23:50

Section 1

Question Answer
What vaccinations are available for avians?Polyoma, Pox, Pachecos, EEE, WEE, WNV
What testing is available for avians?PBFD, Polyoma Virus, Chlamydiophyla psittaci, Aspergillus titer/protein electrophoresis
What are signs of respiratory distress?Open mount breathing, Tail bob, Hyperinflation, Resp stridor, Clicks/Wheezes/Squeeks/Snicks
What causes bright green feces?Biliverdinuria liver dz, anorexia, metal tox, chlamydiophyla, E. coli
Where can you take a pulse?Deep ulnar a & v
Where can you listen to the lungs?Dorsal Coelom
Where can you listen to the air sacs?Ventral Coelom
Where can you listen to the heart?Ventral Coelom
What is the cere?fleshy bit over the nares (wrinkled when dehydrated)
What is the facial disk?asymmetrical facial disk that assists hearing
What is the choana?Opening in roof of the beak with sharp papillae and pink mm
What is the patagium?skin from shoulder to wrist in a bird
What's the uropygial?a gland at the dorsum tail base that secretes oil to preen feathers (ostriches and amazon parrots lack)
What is normal fecal flora?150 bact/field, 70% G+rod, 30% G+cocci, no yeast or G-rods (except meat eaters)
What is fecal flora in borderline malnutrition?>90% G+rod, <10%G+cocci, occasional G-rod
What is abnormal fecal flora?Many G-rods or monomorphic bacteria, budding yeast
Signs of a nervous, defensive, upset, or excited birdFlashing, blushing, tail flares, head bobs, fluffed and shaking feathers
What species might the owners need to leave for?Cockatoos, Amazons
How many primaries do you trim for a wing trim?Rush leaves 8-10 and trims 1-7. Little birds trim all.
Where do you cut a primary?at the naked quill
How short do you trim nails?90 degree angle to nail bed
What birds should have the polyoma vx?multiple bird households, breeding birds, traveling birds
Where do you give the polyoma vx?SQ ventral keel

Section 2

Question Answer
What is Polyoma (APV)?Dz in nestling budgerigars and parrots with high mortality
How do survivors shed polyoma?skin, feather dander, droppings
What are clinical signs of Polyoma?lethargy, fluffed, delayed crop emptying, sudden death (generalized hemorrhage)
How do Lovebirds react to polyoma?nestlings up to a year can be affected
How do Cockatoos react to polyoma?4-8wks with severe dyspnea and pneumonia
How do adults react to polyoma?usually asymptomatic, but can be clinical and die if infected with PBFD
How do you diagnose polyoma?necropsy with histo INIB or PCR
How do you prevent polyoma?PCR new birds, test environment, Vx groups, quarentine
What is PBFD?Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease, circovirus
What are clinical signs of PBFD?lack of beak and down powder in birds over 8-10m, then feather loss, abnormal feathers, necrosis/fracture of distal beak
How do Cockatoos react to PBFD?nestlings will regurge and die in acute cases
How do African Greys react to PBFD?6wk-8m may have rapid fatal form, crop stasis, regurge, death (liver necrosis)
What birds have few or no CS of PBFD?Lovebirds, Eclectus, Budgies (French molt), Lories (only 30% die)
How do you diagnose PBFD?appearence, PCR, follicular biopsy
How do you prevent PBFD?Very contagious and terminal, all + birds shed actively. Proper quarantine and testing.
What is Pacheco's Dz?Herpes w/ multiple sero/genotypes. Highly contagious, acute, assc w/ stress & contact w/ oral secretions & mm contact
What are clinical signs of Pacheco's?Non-specific (depends on organ invaded) or acute death w/ bright yellow urates. Sudden death most common.
What birds are resistant to Pacheco's?Cockatiels and Cockatoos
How do you diagnose Pacheco's?PCR swabs or tissues. Often enlarged liver or hepatic necrosis, splenomegaly, renomegaly.
How can you treat Pacheco's?Acyclovir TID or in feed during outbreak
How do you prevent Pacheco's?proper husbandry and control
What is Fowl Pox?Poxvirus. Mosquito vector. Cutaneous (dry), Wet, and Acute.
What are the clinical signs of Cutaneous Fowl Pox?Most common. Papules, pustules, scabs on unfeathered areas. Low mortality, self-limiting.
What are the clinical signs of Wet Fowl Pox?May progress from cutaneous. Blepharitis, chemosis, conjuctivitis, mm lesions (plaques). High mortality.
What are the clinical signs of Acute Fowl Pox?Depression, cyanosis, anorexia, rapid death. In air sacs and organs.
How do you diagnose Fowl Pox?Gross lesions and CS, Bollinger bodies
What is a Bollinger Body?Eosinophilic Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies seen in Fowl Pox
How do you treat Fowl Pox?Supportive care
How do you prevent Fowl Pox?Vector control. Poultry have a Vx (doesn't work well in domestics)
What is PDD?Avian Bornavirus. Causing wasting and neuro issues in psittacines (esp Afr Greys and macaws)
What are clinical signs of PDD?Digestion (massive proventriculus dilation) or neuro issues progressing to worse neuro signs, seizures, and death. Any age.
How is PDD diagnosed?New blood test, unproven. Otherwise necropsy.
How do you treat PDD?No cure. Quarantine, liquid diet, probiotics, supportive care.
How do you prevent PDD?Quarantine, remove infected, Hygiene.
What is Newcastle Dz?Paramyxovirus. Lentogenic, Mesogenic, Velogenic strains. Reportable in poultry.
How is Newcastle transmitted?Resp aerosols, fecal contamination, direct contact w/ birds/fomites
What are clinical signs of Newcastle's?Similar to flu (depression, anorexia, discharge) but with neuro signs
How do you diagnose Newcastle?viral isolation, PCR, ELISA
How do you treat Newcastle?Not treated. Reported.
How do you prevent Newcastle?USA flocks vaccinated
What birds can't be vx against Newcastle?Birds entering the USA cos they can still be carriers
What is Avian Influenza?Orthomyxovirus Type A, zoonotic, worldwide, reportable. Mildly and Highly pathogenic forms.
How is Influenza transmitted?contact with bodily secretions, waterfowl are natural reservoir
What are clinical signs of Influenza?Depression, anorexia, discharge, decreased production. HPAI sudden death.
How do you diagnose Influenza?tracheal or cloacal swabs and serology (AGID, ELISA, etc)
How do you prevent Influenza?Vx (changes yearly), strict biosecurity and quarantine. If HPAI, eradicate.
What is EEE?Eastern Equine Encephalitis. Arbovirus, zoonotic, reportable
How is EEE transmitted?mosquito vectors, birds are carriers
What are clinical signs of EEE?CNS signs, but most birds recover and remain carriers
How do you diagnose EEE in birds?CS, VI, serology
How do you treat EEE in birds?supportive care
How do you prevent EEE in birds?Vx at 1/10 equine dose at 5-6w. Vector control.
What is WNV?West Nile Virus. Zoonotic, reportable
How is WNV transmitted?Mosquito Vector
How does WNV affect birds?most are carriers and immune. Used to kill crows, jays, and hawks.
What are clinical sides of WNV in birds?malaise, anorexia, regurg, neuro, sudden death
How do you diagnose WNV?Virus isolation and serology, PCR
How do you prevent WNV?Mosquito control, Vx for horses and geese (only lasts 12 weeks)

Section 3

Question Answer
What is Chlamydiophila psittaci?Bacterial zoonotic reportable disease
What are clinical signs of Chlamydiophila?URT, depression, anorexia, PU, biliverdinuria, dehydration, dyspnea, hepatomegaly
How do you diagnose Chlamydiophila?Antigen/Ab testing, culture of ocular, liver, URT, blood
How do you treat Chlamydiophila?Doxycycline inj or oral
What bacteria affect the GI tract, Liver, and spleen?Mycobacterium
What species does Mycoplasma usually affect?Poultry
What bacteria usually cause secondary infections?E. coli, Klebsiella, Psuedomonas, Serratia, Proteus, Salmonella, Citrobacter, Aeromonas, Campylobacter
What bacteria causes a secondary infection of wounds?Pasturella, Staph/Strep, Clostridium
What are the clinical signs of Candida albicans infection?regurg, oral plaques
How do you diagnose Candida?CS, Culture
How do you treat Candida?Nystatin topically
What are the clinical signs of Malassezia infection?dermatitis
How do you diagnose Malassezia?histopathology
How do you treat Malassezia?Fluconazole PO or topical
What are clinical signs of Aspergillus fumigatus infection?U/LRT, dyspnea, anorexia, wt. loss, weakness. Secondary infection.
How do you diagnose Aspergillus?Titers, Protein electrophoresis, radiographs
How do you treat Aspergillus?Itraconazole PO or nebulizer, Sx. No cure for chronic.
What causes Avian Gastric Yeast?Macrohabdosis
What are the clinical signs of Avian Gastric Yeast?Chronic wt. loss, Regurge, polyphagia, seeds in stool (in that order)
How do you diagnose Avian Gastric Yeast?Wet mount, Wright's Staing (mottled G+ rods)
How do you treat Avian Gastric Yeast?supportive, itraconazole, Amph B, boraconazole (best but $$)
What blood parasites are seen in Avians?Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, Atoxoplasma
What is the location and clinical signs of Leukocytozoon?gross cell distortion of RBC/WBC gametocytes, anemia, leukocytosis, tachypnea, anorexia, green diarrhea, CNS
Location and clinical signs of Plasmodium?exoerythrocytic meronts, weak, depressed, dyspnea, anemia, abdominal distention, big right heart, weight loss, ocular hemorrhage, death
Location and clinical signs of Haemoproteus?intraerythrocytic gametocyte (no distortion) most common blood parasite
Location and clinical signs of Atoxoplasma?intracytoplasmic bodies, listless, diarrhea, anorexia, poor repro, fledgling death
How do you diagnose and treat blood parasites?blood smears, control vectors, chloroquine w/ primaquine (ware toxicity)
How does Giardia present?asymptomatic to wt loss, diarrhea, feather picking, failure to thrive.
What are clinical signs of Trichamoniasis?emaciation, yellow sinus plugs, diarrhea, inappetance, regurge, crop stasis, mount plaques
How do you diagnose and treat Trichamoniasis?wet mount cotton swab, Imidazoles
What are the three diseases that cause mouth plaques and how do you differentiate them?Trichamoniasis (wet mount, swims), Candida (gram stain), Pox (- on those tests)
What are clinical signs of cochlosoma?usu asymptomatic. 10d-6w dehydrated, diarrhea, undigested food, yellow stained nest/mates, death
How do you diagnose cochlosoma?saline smear, histopath
How do you treat cochlosoma?ronidazole, dimetridazole
Clinical signs of CryptosporidiumGI, respiratory, urinary
Diagnose Cryptosporidiumfecal float, acid fast +, direct IF, fecal ELISA
Clinical signs of Toxoplasmamost asymp. Acute sever resp. Chronic blindness, ataxia, torticollis
Diagnose and treat Toxoplasmaincreasing Ab titer, pyrimethamine or diclazuril
Sarcocystis clinical signsbirds IH. Asymp, anorexia, diarrhea, weak, dyspnea, ataxia, death
Diagnose Sarcocystisrice breast - merozoites in striated muscle
Clinical signs Coccidia/IsosporaUsu Asymp. diarrhea, emaciation, abd distention (dilated bowels)
Diagnose and treat Coccidiafecal float, pyrimethamine, diclazuril, ponazuril
What causes Big Liver Disease?Atoxoplasma/Lankasterella
Clinical signs Big Liver Diseasehepatomegaly, red swollen vent, fluffed, 80% death and CNS and Dyspnea. no cure
Diagnose Big Liver diseasenecropsy, histo had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in mononuclear cells
Clinical signs of gapewormhead shaking, gaping, sneezing, malaise, dyspnea
Clinical signs of tracheal miteshead shaking, gaping, dyspnea, voice changes/no singing
Scaly leg mite clinical signshyperkeratotic lesions, pruritis

Section 4

Question Answer
Who is prone to Iron Storage Disease?Tanagers, Starlings, Mynahs, Bulbuls, Toucans. Assc with high diet Vit. C and iron
Clinical signs of Iron Storage DiseaseADR, abdominal distension w/ hepatomegaly, cachexia, apathy, beak color loss, ascites, sudden death
Diagnose Iron Storage diseaseelevated liver enzymes, bile acids. Hypoproteinemia in mynahs. Clinical signs. Ddx liver biopsy
Treat Iron Storage Diseasesupportive, tannin tea, low iron diet, phlebotomy, Deferoxamine
Visceral Gout Clinical SignsPU/PD, sudden death
Dx and Tx Visceral Goutmaybe rads but usually necropsy, Tx as other species
Toxic Inhalantsany potential irritant, CO, polytetrafluoroethylenec, disinfectants
Toxic Metalszinc and lead (birdcages)
Toxic plantsavacado, dieffenbachia, yew, foxglove, lupine, oleander
Toxic Pesticideorganophosphates
Where birds get carcinomainternal organs, excise or chemo
Where birds get SCCmucocutanous jxns of head, distal wing/phalanges, UP gland
Where birds get Papillomasnear cloaca, Dx tool acetic acid, Sx removal
What to do about Xanthomasexccise
Where birds get fibrosarcomasoral, long bones, abdominal cavity. Chemo or Sx.
Where do psittacines get lymphoma? retrobulbar, may metastasize. Chemo, Sx, radiation
How do you treat lipomas?modify diet
How do you treat Thymomas and Thyroid Adenocarcinomas?Sx, cisplatin
Clinical signs of pituitary adenomaNeuro, retrobulbar mass, exophthalmia
What are hemangiomas in birds?redpurple flat firm lesions, usually benign
What is rickets?deficiency of Vit D, Ca, and K in growing birds results in soft bones, weakness, slow growth
What is osteoporosis?deficiency of Vit D, Ca and K in adult birds results in deformed bones, thin eggs, paralysis
Vitamin A deficiency causespoor growth and pigment, keratinization of skin, lacrimation, eyelid swelling, mm pustules, kidney urates, poor eggs
Vit E deficiency causesencephalomalacia, death(2-5w); muscular dystrophy (4-8w); exudative diathesis (5-11w)
What nutrients are seeds deficient in?Vit A, Ca, fatty acids
What species need grit?pigeons, fowl, canaries, finches
Species prone to feather pluckingAfrican greys, Cocakatoos, captive birds
Treatment for feather cystsintact resection of affected follicle
What is and causes Bumblefoot?secondary bacterial infection caused by poor perching, obesity, inactivity, Vit A deficiency
Clinical signs of egg bindingwide based stance, unable to defecate, lethargic, fluffed, inappetant