Exotics- Poultry med 1

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-09-27 20:59


Question Answer
(for my knowledge) What is a poult? what is a pullet?a pullet is a young female laying hen less than 1 year typically, a poult is a young chicken/turkey/whatever poultry being raised for foodstuffs (just think that a poult is baby poultry that you're gonna eat. Whereas a pullet can pullet together and be other things than food (like a layer) )
What type of poultry production brings the greatest income to the US economy? (how much?)Broilers 30 Billion (3 eats more meat than eggs)
How many eggs are consumed per capita in the US?300 (Three loves making omlettes)
What species of poultry has the best feed efficiency – broiler or turkey?Broilers almost 1:1 more like 2 lbs of food per 1 lb of meat (prolly why chicken more common)
Export of US poultry products is valued at what level?4.2 billion (four and two discuss money)
In what species of growing poultry are the sexes raised together- pullet, poult, or broiler chick?Broiler chick- it's hard to sex them, and their gender doesnt matter with eating their meat like it does with laying eggs, and you want them to breed i think. and turkeys kill each other.
Artificial insemination is a common practice with what species of poultry.Turkeys (theyre just too big, and raised separate)
Ninety-five percent of commercial layers are raised under what type of conditions?Tiered cages
Nipple drinkers should not be used for which one of the following species: layer, broiler, turkey, duck?Turkeys use plasson drinkers (theyre too dumb to figure it out)
What types of information in daily poultry records might help a veterinarian with a field investigation?Rule # 1- LET THE CHICKENS tell you! Records: egg production, BW, egg weights, feed and water consumption, mortality rate, house temp, rations fed, vx history, medication, air quality, visitors
Why type of clothing is most appropriate for a veterinarian to wear upon entering a poultry facility?Coveralls, bouffants, dust mask, boots, gloves
What are the various methods for vaccinating poultry?In ovo, spray, drinking water, wing web, eye drop, injection
How are killed vaccines usually applied?Injected but NOT broilers or growing turkeys only breeder broilers or layers- SQ neck or IM breast or thigh mm ((killed is only injected, bc it's dead
How are live vaccines applied?Can be injected, spray, water, wing web, in ovo, eye drop (just like how a liver virus is live, it can get in different ways and move around for the immune system to find it)
What are examples of adverse effects of vaccination?Tissue reaction- adjuvants or transmit bacteria, exaggerated rxn in tissue or respiratory rxn- open mouth breathing- using fine spray that go down to lower resp tract, or strain too strong for age can actually get dz
What vaccine virus is typically applied in ovo?Marek’s dz (think of merek eating eggs whole)
What are the advantages and disadvantages of a killed vaccine?Advantages: fewer systemic rxn, fewer revx needed, no spread to other birds, long lasting and uniform immune response bc adjuvant acts as depot, reduces risk of interference if using multiple agents. Disadvantages: handling of inv birds-labor costs, adjuvant can cause tissue rxn, needles can transmit bact, exaggerated tissue rxn
What are the advantages and disadvantages of a live vaccine?Advantages: easier to apply –many methods ie spray, faster application, better @ inducing mucosal immunity, longer shelf life bc freeze dried, no skin or mm rxn. Disadvantages: adverse resp tract rxn, rapid application after mixing, shorter humoral response comp to killed vx
What are two ways you might elicit an exaggerated vaccine reaction when administering a respiratory virus vaccine spray to young birds?Strain is too strong and particle size is too small ie fine spray
List three or four features or additives of drinking water that can reduce the viability of a live vaccine virus.Chlorine, disinfectants, high water temp, organic matter (when vx is ADDED to the water)
List two methods that are used to immunize broiler and pullet chicks against Marek’s disease. What method is most often used in the largest US commercial hatcheries?In ovo or inj of live virus. (merek is alive) In ovo used in commercial hatcheries bc reduces labor costs
How is pox virus vaccine administered to chickens? What is the anatomic site of inoculation? How can one confirm that each bird was successfully vaccinated?Wing web vx SQ (makes sense, pox likes the skin, and wing web is all skin) Confirm vx- bc will have small swelling @ inj site 5-10 (around a week) days post vx-proper immune response = “take”
Why is a water soluble dye added to live vaccines when administered in drinking water or eyedrop?To ensure that bird has received vaccine so not admin vx to birds already have it and can be sure ALL birds were vxed
What is the name of the boney ring in the eye of birds? Is this structure present in mammals?Scleral ossicle, no
What is pneumatic bone?Hollow bone that is infiltrated by air sacs
What bone of the wing anchors the secondary feathers?Ulna ( U put the feathers here)
What unique anatomic features of the avian ribcage and vertebral column are useful for flight?Ribs are rigid and uncinate processes provide thoracic rigidity for flight. Synsacrum for spinal rigidity (fusion of lumbar and thoracic vert.) And pygostyle, which is fused tail verts. for tail feathers (rectrices) to attach.
What two anatomic sites of the avian digestive tract have the lowest pH?Proventriculus and crop
What anatomic features of the gizzard give it crushing strength and resistance to acid pH?Two smooth mm bands give it crushing strength and koilin pad protects it from low pH
List 4-5 unique anatomic or physiologic features of the avian respiratory tract that distinguish it from that of mammals.Choanal slit-upper palate communicates w/nasal cavity, no diaphragm, air sacs-for two cycle air movement, counter-current system of air/blood capillaries, parabronchi, soft-walled infraorbital sinus(not encased in bone)
What is the name of the national organization that monitors several egg-transmitted diseases in poultry breeder flocks? List five infectious agents that are monitored through this program.NPIP- National Poultry Improvement Plan. Mycoplasma meleagridis, Avian influenza, Salmonella pullorum/gallinarum, Mycoplasma synovia, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MISS-G)
What is the official NPIP test for antibodies to Salmonella pullorum-gallinarum? What term describes a bird that tests positive on this test?Plate agglutination test (salmon makes my stomach CURDLE<---clot). Abs of bird from whole blood or serum mixed on plate w/ S. pulllorum ags. Will agglutinate if +. + bird = reactor
List 7-8 possible sources of Salmonella contamination in a poultry operation.Contamination of by products in feed, feces of carrier birds, hatchery contamination, vectors-mice and wild birds, egg transmission- transovarian or soiled eggs) another wording is: contaminated egg shells (Egg transmitted), dirty hatchery, rats and mice, Contaminated by-products in feed, Feces of carrier birds, Hatchery contamination, fluff (dander/feathers), hen to chick
What is “inflammatory process” of broilers? With what microorganism is this usually associated?Cellulitis due to e coli
What is the classic triad of lesions that is characteristic of Escherichia coli infection in chickens?Pericarditis, perihepatitis, airsacculitis (heart liver and airsacs- basically the most important stuff is what E coli likes to attack)
What is salpingitis? What microorganism is most often isolation from this condition in laying hens?E. coli= colibaccilosis. Salpingitis= inflammation/inf of oviduct (SHIT (ecoli) in your oviduct)
How does a bird generally incur infection with Staphylococcus aureus?Commensal of the skin- enters through skin injury or excessive moisture can cause localized infection or travel to bloodstream causing sepsis
List 3-4 conditions that are commonly associated with staphylococcal infection.Osteomyelitis, yolk saculitis, hepatitis, bumblefoot, supparative arthritis (feet have skin, moves from feet to joints, joints to bones, ((bones-->blood-->) liver, yolk sac
Attention to what features in a poultry house should help to reduce staphylococcal infections?Dry litter, avoid crowding, good air movement, fix leaky water lines, remove sharp objects
Of the four possible sources of infection what is the most common manner in which male turkeys contract Erysipelothrix infection? What is one additional route in which turkey breeder hen can contract the infection?(REMEMBER TURKEYS are closer to pig size than chickens, so turkeys get erysipelothrix) Fighting among Toms is major source of infection bc are subclinical carriers. (other modes are soil, swine, rats). Transmit to hens through semen via AI.
Do Pasteurella multocida and Erysipelothrix usually infect young (<5 weeks) or older (mature >10 weeks) birds? Which of these agents is Gram positive and which one is Gram negative?Erysipelas is G POSITIVE (I'm positive that's a hard word to spell and say) and Pasteurella multocida (I'm NOT (neg) out to PASTURE) is G NeGATIve. Both infect older, mature birds ie adult tom turkeys (ersyp) and turkeys > 1o wks and chickens > 16 wks for Pasteurella (put out to pasture and writing big words is for adults)
What microorganism that is commonly isolated from the oral cavity of cats and raccoon can be carried into a poultry house and is directly infectious to poultry?Pasteurella multocida aka Fowl cholera (cats and raccons dont like cholera-flower pastures, so they give them to poultry)
What are gross lesions of Mycobacterium avium infection in poultry?Emaciation with nodules (ie granulomas or tubercles) in spleen, liver, intestine, and BM (its mycobact which means TB which means nodules. and internally....and avium means BIRDS WITH NODULES, IN GENERAL BIRDS)
What parasitic infection or dietary features might predispose a broiler chicken to develop necrotic enteritis?Necrotic Enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens (toxins and crap...very necrotic). Dz can be predisposed by coccidiosis and fish meal or wheat in rations (cocc. opens up GI to probelms, and fish and wheat are not things chickens usually eat)
What disease and infectious agent of broilers is associated with a necrotic pseudomembrane lining the small intestine?Clostridium perferingens (CLOSTRIDIUM= NECROSIS AND ANAEROBIC SO INTESTINES)
What is the hallmark lesion of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in turkeys, and hence the disease name in turkeys? What is the anatomic site that is usually enlarged? Is the exudate associated with MG infection in turkeys caseous, suppurative or seromucoid? Infectious sinusitis- inflammation of infraorbital sinus. seromucoid. (teresa GALLUS has a sinus infection, with her eyes watering and mucus everywhere (seromucoid) )
What Mycoplasma agent preferentially infects joints (arthritis)?Mycoplasma synoviae (synovia=joint)
What Mycoplasma agent, in particular, is referred to as “venereal disease of tom turkeys” because it has been transmitted to hens by artificial insemination?Mycoplasma meleagridis (mel is greedy if she thinks she can have the babies of so many toms without getting an STD)
“Raccoon eye” is a prominent feature of what bacterial infection of turkeys? Why is exudate also present on the shoulders of infected birds? What effect on the trachea can cause infected poults to have a high-pitched chirp and respiratory distress?Bordatella avium aka Turkey Coryza. Rub eyes on shoulders leaving exudate from eyes. (turkeys are corying and rub the tears on their shoulders bc they got their bordatella vx) Produces a tracheal cytotoxin that dissolves cartilage and occludes lumen because ring collapses (having a knot in their throat from corying because their trach. rings are collapsing)
How is aspergillosis contracted? What is the hallmark lesion in the lung? Can it be transmitted from bird to bird?Its contracted from the environment via spore inhalation- dusty litter or via contaminated eggs in incubator. Granulomatous pneumonia- yellow/grey nodules in lungs, air sacs, trachea. NOT transmitted from bird-bird (asparagus, when inhaled, will def cause nodules in your lungs. but another bird can't catch the asparagus in your lungs)
What husbandry practice is a common cause of overgrowth of Candida yeast in the crops of young birds.Long term use of abx (think vaginas)
Mareks(herpes) vs Lymphoid Leukosis(retrovirus)--> Which virus can be transmitted vertically (through the egg)?leukosis (bc retrovirus in DNA, so can be passed to egg easier)
Mareks(herpes) vs Lymphoid Leukosis(retrovirus)--> What form of cancer is produced by each virus?MAREKS: T-cell lymphoma (marek drinks tea because he is a person). LEUKOSIS: B-cell (not mareks, the other one)
Mareks vs lymphoid leukosis- which virus causes which?MAREKS=GALLID HERPESVIRUS 2 (merek has herpes and drinks tea for 2 (for T cells) ). LEUKOSIS= retrovirus (leuko=white. A white retro leisure suit)
Mareks(herpes) vs Lymphoid Leukosis(retrovirus)--> Which disease causes formation of tumors with paralysis?MAREKS (affects nerves-- remember that merek has a lot of nerve to stop those chickens in their tracks)
Mareks(herpes) vs Lymphoid Leukosis(retrovirus)--> Which virus has the shorted incubation period- i.e., can occur as early as 4 weeks of age?MAREKS (merek has a short temper)
Mareks(herpes) vs Lymphoid Leukosis(retrovirus)--> Which condition is routinely covered by hatchery vaccination. How are the birds vaccinated?Mareks, SQ or in ovo. (no vx for Leukosis---> ITS RETRO. NO VX)
What virus causes immunosuppression in chickens by direct damage to the Bursa of Fabricius?Birnavirus-Infectious Bursal dz (obv. bursal--> birna. NA Brusa)
Aside from neurotropic END(exotic newcastle dz) and HPAI(highly pathogenic avian influenza), what are two viruses that can cause neurological signs (paralysis, tremors, ataxia) in chickens?Avian Encephalomyelitis virus (says brain right in it) and Marek’s (nerves) (and then remember the HPAI is the END of birds and you)

Recent badges