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Exotics - Poultry 1

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ktepps's version from 2016-10-26 22:10

Poultry

Question Answer
What Vx virus is typically applied in ovo?Marek’s dz (think of merek eating eggs whole)
What are the advantages & disadvantages of a killed Vx?Advantages: Fewer systemic rxn, fewer reVx needed, no spread to other birds, long lasting & uniform immune response bc adjuvant acts as depot, reduces risk of interference if using multiple agents
Disadvantages: handling of inv birds-labor costs, adjuvant can cz tissue rxn, needles can transmit bact, exaggerated tissue rxn
What are the advantages & disadvantages of a live Vx?Advantages: Easier to apply –many methods i.e. spray, faster application, better @ inducing mucosal immunity, longer shelf life bc freeze dried, no skin or mm rxn
Disadvantages: adverse resp tract rxn, rapid application after mixing, shorter humoral response comp to killed Vx
What are 2 ways you might elicit an exaggerated Vx rxn when administering a respiratory virus Vx spray to young birds?Strain is too strong & particle size is too small i.e. fine spray
List 2 methods that are used to immunize broiler & pullet chicks against Marek’s dz. What method is most often used in the largest US commercial hatcheries?In ovo or injxn of live virus. (Merek is alive) In ovo used in commercial hatcheries bc reduces labor costs
How is pox virus Vx administered to chickens? What is the anatomic site of inoculation? How can 1 confirm that each bird was successfully vxd?Wing web Vx SQ (makes sense, pox likes the skin & wing web is all skin) Confirm Vx-bc will have small swelling @ inj site 5-10 (around a week) days post Vx-proper immune response = “take”
Why is a water soluble dye added to live Vxs when administered in drinking water or eyedrop?To ensure that bird has received Vx so not admin Vx to birds already have it & can be sure ALL birds were Vxed
What is the name of the boney ring in the eye of birds? Is this structure present in mammals?Scleral ossicle, no
What is pneumatic bone?Hollow bone that is infiltrated by air sacs
What is the official NPIP test for antibodies to Salmonella pullorum-gallinarum? What term describes a bird that tests positive on this test?Plate agglutination test (salmon makes my stomach CURDLE ← clot). Abs of bird from whole blood or serum mixed on plate w/ S. pullorum ags. Will agglutinate if +. + Bird = reactor
List 7-8 possible sources of Salmonella contamination in a poultry operation.Contamination of by products in feed, feces of carrier birds, hatchery contamination, vectors-mice & wild birds, egg xmission-transovarian or soiled eggs) another wording is: contaminated egg shells (Egg xmitted), dirty hatchery, rats & mice, Contaminated by-products in feed, Feces of carrier birds, Hatchery contamination, fluff (dander/feathers), hen to chick
What is “inflammatory process” of broilers? W/ what microorganism is this usually associated?Cellulitis due to E coli
What is the classic triad of lesions that is characteristic of Escherichia coli infxn in chickens?Pericarditis
Perihepatitis
Air Sacculitis

(heart liver & air sacs-basically the most important stuff is what E coli likes to attack)
What is Salpingitis? What microorganism is most often isolation from this condition in laying hens?E. coli = colibaccilosis
Salpingitis = inflammation/infxn of oviduct (SHIT (E. coli) in your oviduct)
How does a bird generally incur infxn w/ Staphylococcus aureus?Commensal of the skin-enters through skin injury or excessive moisture can cz localized infxn or travel to bloodstream causing sepsis
List 3-4 conditions that are commonly associated w/ Staphylococcal infxn.Osteomyelitis
Yolk sacculitis
Hepatitis
Bumblefoot
Supparative arthritis
(Feet have skin, moves from feet to joints, joints to bones, (bones → blood → ) liver, yolk sac)
Attention to what features in a poultry house should help to reduce Staphylococcal infxns?Dry litter
Avoid crowding
Good air movement
Fix leaky
Water lines
Remove sharp objects
Of the 4 possible sources of infxn what is the most common manner in which male turkeys contract Erysipelothrix infxn? What is 1 additional route in which turkey breeder hen can contract the infxn?(REMEMBER TURKEYS are closer to pig size than chickens, so turkeys get Erysipelothrix) Fighting among Toms is major source of infxn bc are subclinical carriers. (Other modes are soil, swine, rats). Transmit to hens through semen via AI.
Do Pasteurella multocida & Erysipelothrix usually infect young (<5 weeks) or older (mature >10 weeks) birds? Which of these agents is Gram positive & which 1 is Gram negative?Erysipelas is G POSITIVE (I'm positive that's a hard word to spell & say) & Pasteurella multocida (I'm NOT (neg) out to PASTURE) is G Negative. Both infect older, mature birds i.e. adult tom turkeys (Erysip) & turkeys > 1o wks & chickens > 16 wks for Pasteurella (put out to pasture & writing big words is for adults)
What microorganism that is commonly isolated from the oral cavity of cats & raccoon can be carried into a poultry house & is directly infectious to poultry?Pasteurella multocida aka Fowl cholera (cats & raccoons dont like cholera-flower pastures, so they give them to poultry)
What are gross lesions of Mycobacterium axiom infxn in poultry?Emaciation w/ nodules (i.e. granulomas or tubercles) in spleen, liver, intestine & BM (its Mycobact which means TB which means nodules. & internally....and axiom means BIRDS w/ NODULES, IN GENERAL BIRDS)
What parasitic infxn or dietary features might predispose a broiler chicken to develop necrotic enteritis?Necrotic Enteritis czd by Clostridium perfringens (toxins & crap...very necrotic). dz can be predisposed by Coccidiosis & fish meal or wheat in rations (Cocc. opens up GI to problems & fish & wheat are not things chickens usually eat)
What dz & infectious agent of broilers is associated w/ a necrotic pseudo membrane lining the small intestine?Clostridium perferingens (CLOSTRIDIUM= NECROSIS & ANAEROBIC SO INTESTINES)
What is the hallmark lesion of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infxn in turkeys & hence the dz name in turkeys? What is the anatomic site that is usually enlarged? Is the exudate associated w/ MG infxn in turkeys caseous, suppurative or seromucoid?Infectious sinusitis-inflammation of infraorbital sinus. Seromucoid. (Teresa GALLUS has a sinus infxn, w/ her eyes watering & mucus everywhere (seromucoid) )
What Mycoplasma agent preferentially infects joints (arthritis)?Mycoplasma synoviae (synovia=joint)
What Mycoplasma agent, in particular, is referred to as “venereal dz of tom turkeys” bc it has been xmitted to hens by artificial insemination?Mycoplasma meleagridis (mel is greedy if she thinks she can have the babies of so many toms w/o getting an STD)
“Raccoon eye” is a prominent feature of what bacterial infxn of turkeys? Why is exudate also present on the shoulders of infected birds? What effect on the trachea can cz infected poults to have a high-pitched chirp & respiratory distress?Bordetella axiom aka Turkey Coryza. Rub eyes on shoulders leaving exudate from eyes. (turkeys are corying & rub the tears on their shoulders bc they got their Bordetella Vx) Produces a tracheal cytotoxin that dissolves cartilage & occludes lumen bc ring collapses (having a knot in their throat from corying bc their trach. rings are collapsing)
How is aspergillosis contracted? What is the hallmark lesion in the lung? Can it be xmitted from bird to bird?Its contracted from the environment via spore inhalation-dusty litter or via contaminated eggs in incubator. Granulomatous pneumonia-yellow/grey nodules in lungs, air sacs, trachea. NOT xmitted from bird-bird (asparagus, when inhaled, will def cz nodules in your lungs. but another bird can't catch the asparagus in your lungs)
What husbandry practice is a common cz of overgrowth of Candida yeast in the crops of young birds.Long term use of ABx (think vaginas)
Marek’s (Herpes) vs Lymphoid Leukosis (Retrovirus) → which virus can be xmitted vertically (through the egg)?Leukosis (bc Retrovirus in DNA, so can be passed to egg easier)
Marek’s (Herpes) vs Lymphoid Leukosis (Retrovirus) → what form of cancer is produced by each virus?MAREK’S: T-cell lymphoma (Marek drinks tea bc he is a person). LEUKOSIS: B-cell (not Marek’s, the other one)
Marek’s vs Lymphoid Leukosis-which virus czs which?MAREK’S = GALLID HERPESVIRUS 2 (Merek has Herpes & drinks tea for 2 (for T cells) )
LEUKOSIS= Retrovirus (leuko=white. A white retro leisure suit)
Marek’s (Herpes) vs Lymphoid Leukosis (Retrovirus) → Which dz czs formation of tumors w/ paralysis?MAREK’S (affects nerves-remember that merek has a lot of nerve to stop those chickens in their tracks)
Marek’s (Herpes) vs Lymphoid Leukosis (Retrovirus) → which virus has the shorted incubation period-i.e., can occur as early as 4 weeks of age?MAREK’S (merek has a short temper)
Marek’s (Herpes) vs Lymphoid Leukosis (Retrovirus) → which condition is routinely covered by hatchery Vx. How are the birds vxd?Marek’s, SQ or in ovo. (No Vx for Leukosis → ITS RETRO. NO VX)
What virus czs immunosuppression in chickens by direct damage to the Bursa of Fabricius?Birnavirus-Infectious Bursal dz (obv. bursal → birna. NA Brusa)
Aside from neurotropic END (exotic Newcastle dz) & HPAI (highly pathogenic Avian Influenza), what are 2 viruses that can cz neurological signs (paralysis, tremors, ataxia) in chickens?Avian Encephalomyelitis virus (says brain right in it)
Marek’s (nerves) (& then remember the HPAI is the END of birds & you)
memorize