Exotics - Poultry 1

drraythe's version from 2016-02-09 13:50


Question Answer
(For my knowledge) What is a poult? What is a pullet?A pullet is a young female laying hen less than 1 year typically, a poult is a young chicken/turkey/whatever poultry being raised for foodstuffs (just think that a poult is baby poultry that you're gonna eat. Whereas a pullet can pullet together & be other things than food (like a layer) )
What type of poultry production brings the greatest income to the US economy? (How much?)Broilers 30 Billion (3 eats more meat than eggs)
How many eggs are consumed per capita in the US?300 (3 loves making omlettes)
What species of poultry has the best feed efficiency – broiler or turkey?Broilers almost 1:1 more like 2 lbs of food per 1 lb of meat (prolly why chicken more common)
Export of US poultry products is valued at what level?4.2 billion (four & 2 discuss money)
In what species of growing poultry are the sexes raised together-pullet, poult, or broiler chick?Broiler chick-it's hard to sex them & their gender doesnt matter w/ eating their meat like it does w/ laying eggs & you want them to breed I think. & turkeys kill each other.
Artificial insemination is a common practice w/ what species of poultry.Turkeys (theyre just too big & raised separate)
Ninety-five percent of commercial layers are raised under what type of conditions?Tiered cages
Nipple drinkers should not be used for which 1 of the following species: layer, broiler, turkey, duck?Turkeys use plasson drinkers (theyre too dumb to figure it out)
What types of information in daily poultry records might help a veterinarian w/ a field investigation?Rule #1 - LET THE CHICKENS tell you!
Egg production
Egg weights
Feed & water consumption
Mortality rate
House temp
Rations fed
Air quality
Why type of clothing is most appropriate for a veterinarian to wear upon entering a poultry facility?Coveralls
Bouffants (Sx cap)
Dust mask
What are the various methods for vaccinating poultry?In ovo, spray, drinking water, wing web, eye drop, injxn
How are killed Vxs usually applied?Injected but NOT broilers or growing turkeys only breeder broilers or layers-SQ neck or IM breast or thigh mm ((killed is only injected, bc it's dead
How are live Vxs applied?Can be injected, spray, water, wing web, in ovo, eye drop (just like how a liver virus is live, it can get in different ways & move around for the immune system to find it)
What are examples of adverse effects of Vx?Tissue rxn-adjuvants or transmit bacteria, exaggerated rxn in tissue or respiratory rxn-open mouth breathing-using fine spray that go down to lower resp tract, or strain too strong for age can actually get dz
What Vx virus is typically applied in ovo?Marek’s dz (think of merek eating eggs whole)
What are the advantages & disadvantages of a killed Vx?Advantages: Fewer systemic rxn, fewer reVx needed, no spread to other birds, long lasting & uniform immune response bc adjuvant acts as depot, reduces risk of interference if using multiple agents
Disadvantages: handling of inv birds-labor costs, adjuvant can cz tissue rxn, needles can transmit bact, exaggerated tissue rxn
What are the advantages & disadvantages of a live Vx?Advantages: Easier to apply –many methods i.e. spray, faster application, better @ inducing mucosal immunity, longer shelf life bc freeze dried, no skin or mm rxn
Disadvantages: adverse resp tract rxn, rapid application after mixing, shorter humoral response comp to killed Vx
What are 2 ways you might elicit an exaggerated Vx rxn when administering a respiratory virus Vx spray to young birds?Strain is too strong & particle size is too small i.e. fine spray
List 3 or 4 features or additives of drinking water that can reduce the viability of a live Vx virus.Chlorine, disinfectants, high water temp, organic matter (when Vx is ADDED to the water)
List 2 methods that are used to immunize broiler & pullet chicks against Marek’s dz. What method is most often used in the largest US commercial hatcheries?In ovo or injxn of live virus. (Merek is alive) In ovo used in commercial hatcheries bc reduces labor costs
How is pox virus Vx administered to chickens? What is the anatomic site of inoculation? How can 1 confirm that each bird was successfully vxd?Wing web Vx SQ (makes sense, pox likes the skin & wing web is all skin) Confirm Vx-bc will have small swelling @ inj site 5-10 (around a week) days post Vx-proper immune response = “take”
Why is a water soluble dye added to live Vxs when administered in drinking water or eyedrop?To ensure that bird has received Vx so not admin Vx to birds already have it & can be sure ALL birds were Vxed
What is the name of the boney ring in the eye of birds? Is this structure present in mammals?Scleral ossicle, no
What is pneumatic bone?Hollow bone that is infiltrated by air sacs
What bone of the wing anchors the 2° feathers?Ulna ( U put the feathers here)
What unique anatomic features of the avian ribcage & vertebral column are useful for flight?Ribs are rigid & uncinate processes provide thoracic rigidity for flight. Synsacrum for spinal rigidity (fusion of lumbar & thoracic vert.) & pygostyle, which is fused tail verts. For tail feathers (rectrices) to attach.
What 2 anatomic sites of the avian digestive tract have the lowest pH?Proventriculus & crop
What anatomic features of the gizzard give it crushing strength & resistance to acid pH?Two smooth mm bands give it crushing strength & koilin pad protects it from low pH
List 4-5 unique anatomic or physiologic features of the avian respiratory tract that distinguish it from that of mammals.Choanal slit-upper palate communicates w/nasal cavity, no diaphragm, air sacs-for 2 cycle air movement, counter-current system of air/blood capillaries, parabronchi, soft-walled infraorbital sinus (not encased in bone)
What is the name of the national organization that monitors several egg-xmitted dzs in poultry breeder flocks? List 5 infectious agents that are monitored through this program.NPIP - National Poultry Improvement Plan
Mycoplasma meleagridis
Avian Influenza
Salmonella pullorum/gallinarum
Mycoplasma synovia
Mycoplasma gallisepticum

What is the official NPIP test for antibodies to Salmonella pullorum-gallinarum? What term describes a bird that tests positive on this test?Plate agglutination test (salmon makes my stomach CURDLE ← clot). Abs of bird from whole blood or serum mixed on plate w/ S. pullorum ags. Will agglutinate if +. + Bird = reactor
List 7-8 possible sources of Salmonella contamination in a poultry operation.Contamination of by products in feed, feces of carrier birds, hatchery contamination, vectors-mice & wild birds, egg xmission-transovarian or soiled eggs) another wording is: contaminated egg shells (Egg xmitted), dirty hatchery, rats & mice, Contaminated by-products in feed, Feces of carrier birds, Hatchery contamination, fluff (dander/feathers), hen to chick
What is “inflammatory process” of broilers? W/ what microorganism is this usually associated?Cellulitis due to E coli
What is the classic triad of lesions that is characteristic of Escherichia coli infxn in chickens?Pericarditis
Air Sacculitis

(heart liver & air sacs-basically the most important stuff is what E coli likes to attack)
What is Salpingitis? What microorganism is most often isolation from this condition in laying hens?E. coli = colibaccilosis
Salpingitis = inflammation/infxn of oviduct (SHIT (E. coli) in your oviduct)
How does a bird generally incur infxn w/ Staphylococcus aureus?Commensal of the skin-enters through skin injury or excessive moisture can cz localized infxn or travel to bloodstream causing sepsis
List 3-4 conditions that are commonly associated w/ Staphylococcal infxn.Osteomyelitis
Yolk sacculitis
Supparative arthritis
(Feet have skin, moves from feet to joints, joints to bones, (bones → blood → ) liver, yolk sac)
Attention to what features in a poultry house should help to reduce Staphylococcal infxns?Dry litter
Avoid crowding
Good air movement
Fix leaky
Water lines
Remove sharp objects
Of the 4 possible sources of infxn what is the most common manner in which male turkeys contract Erysipelothrix infxn? What is 1 additional route in which turkey breeder hen can contract the infxn?(REMEMBER TURKEYS are closer to pig size than chickens, so turkeys get Erysipelothrix) Fighting among Toms is major source of infxn bc are subclinical carriers. (Other modes are soil, swine, rats). Transmit to hens through semen via AI.
Do Pasteurella multocida & Erysipelothrix usually infect young (<5 weeks) or older (mature >10 weeks) birds? Which of these agents is Gram positive & which 1 is Gram negative?Erysipelas is G POSITIVE (I'm positive that's a hard word to spell & say) & Pasteurella multocida (I'm NOT (neg) out to PASTURE) is G Negative. Both infect older, mature birds i.e. adult tom turkeys (Erysip) & turkeys > 1o wks & chickens > 16 wks for Pasteurella (put out to pasture & writing big words is for adults)
What microorganism that is commonly isolated from the oral cavity of cats & raccoon can be carried into a poultry house & is directly infectious to poultry?Pasteurella multocida aka Fowl cholera (cats & raccoons dont like cholera-flower pastures, so they give them to poultry)
What are gross lesions of Mycobacterium axiom infxn in poultry?Emaciation w/ nodules (i.e. granulomas or tubercles) in spleen, liver, intestine & BM (its Mycobact which means TB which means nodules. & internally....and axiom means BIRDS w/ NODULES, IN GENERAL BIRDS)
What parasitic infxn or dietary features might predispose a broiler chicken to develop necrotic enteritis?Necrotic Enteritis czd by Clostridium perfringens (toxins & crap...very necrotic). dz can be predisposed by Coccidiosis & fish meal or wheat in rations (Cocc. opens up GI to problems & fish & wheat are not things chickens usually eat)
What dz & infectious agent of broilers is associated w/ a necrotic pseudo membrane lining the small intestine?Clostridium perferingens (CLOSTRIDIUM= NECROSIS & ANAEROBIC SO INTESTINES)
What is the hallmark lesion of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infxn in turkeys & hence the dz name in turkeys? What is the anatomic site that is usually enlarged? Is the exudate associated w/ MG infxn in turkeys caseous, suppurative or seromucoid?Infectious sinusitis-inflammation of infraorbital sinus. Seromucoid. (Teresa GALLUS has a sinus infxn, w/ her eyes watering & mucus everywhere (seromucoid) )
What Mycoplasma agent preferentially infects joints (arthritis)?Mycoplasma synoviae (synovia=joint)
What Mycoplasma agent, in particular, is referred to as “venereal dz of tom turkeys” bc it has been xmitted to hens by artificial insemination?Mycoplasma meleagridis (mel is greedy if she thinks she can have the babies of so many toms w/o getting an STD)
“Raccoon eye” is a prominent feature of what bacterial infxn of turkeys? Why is exudate also present on the shoulders of infected birds? What effect on the trachea can cz infected poults to have a high-pitched chirp & respiratory distress?Bordetella axiom aka Turkey Coryza. Rub eyes on shoulders leaving exudate from eyes. (turkeys are corying & rub the tears on their shoulders bc they got their Bordetella Vx) Produces a tracheal cytotoxin that dissolves cartilage & occludes lumen bc ring collapses (having a knot in their throat from corying bc their trach. rings are collapsing)
How is aspergillosis contracted? What is the hallmark lesion in the lung? Can it be xmitted from bird to bird?Its contracted from the environment via spore inhalation-dusty litter or via contaminated eggs in incubator. Granulomatous pneumonia-yellow/grey nodules in lungs, air sacs, trachea. NOT xmitted from bird-bird (asparagus, when inhaled, will def cz nodules in your lungs. but another bird can't catch the asparagus in your lungs)
What husbandry practice is a common cz of overgrowth of Candida yeast in the crops of young birds.Long term use of ABx (think vaginas)
Marek’s (Herpes) vs Lymphoid Leukosis (Retrovirus) → which virus can be xmitted vertically (through the egg)?Leukosis (bc Retrovirus in DNA, so can be passed to egg easier)
Marek’s (Herpes) vs Lymphoid Leukosis (Retrovirus) → what form of cancer is produced by each virus?MAREK’S: T-cell lymphoma (Marek drinks tea bc he is a person). LEUKOSIS: B-cell (not Marek’s, the other one)
Marek’s vs Lymphoid Leukosis-which virus czs which?MAREK’S = GALLID HERPESVIRUS 2 (Merek has Herpes & drinks tea for 2 (for T cells) )
LEUKOSIS= Retrovirus (leuko=white. A white retro leisure suit)
Marek’s (Herpes) vs Lymphoid Leukosis (Retrovirus) → Which dz czs formation of tumors w/ paralysis?MAREK’S (affects nerves-remember that merek has a lot of nerve to stop those chickens in their tracks)
Marek’s (Herpes) vs Lymphoid Leukosis (Retrovirus) → which virus has the shorted incubation period-i.e., can occur as early as 4 weeks of age?MAREK’S (merek has a short temper)
Marek’s (Herpes) vs Lymphoid Leukosis (Retrovirus) → which condition is routinely covered by hatchery Vx. How are the birds vxd?Marek’s, SQ or in ovo. (No Vx for Leukosis → ITS RETRO. NO VX)
What virus czs immunosuppression in chickens by direct damage to the Bursa of Fabricius?Birnavirus-Infectious Bursal dz (obv. bursal → birna. NA Brusa)
Aside from neurotropic END (exotic Newcastle dz) & HPAI (highly pathogenic Avian Influenza), what are 2 viruses that can cz neurological signs (paralysis, tremors, ataxia) in chickens?Avian Encephalomyelitis virus (says brain right in it)
Marek’s (nerves) (& then remember the HPAI is the END of birds & you)