where do they like to live, and when are they most active?
they are arboreal (live in trees) and are nocturnal
are SGs social or loners?
what is volant? how does this relate to SGs?
Volant= they can glide! and boy, they do
where does SGs live?
in the Eucalyptus forests (of australia/new guinea)
how would you describe the GI of a SG?
they eat a lot of Eucalyptus gum, so they have a short/simple GI with large cecum (kinda like hind-gut fermentors)
describe how the retina of the sugar glider is unique
The retina is AVASCULAR because of it's highly developed tapetum lucidum, which allows it to have superior night vision
what is a Patagium, and what does it do?
this is the flap of skin which extends from the SGs last digit to the back of their legs, and allows them to be volplane (gliding)
what is Syndactylous? Explain this setup with SGs
this means having webbed toes. in the case of SGs, they have this on their hind limbs with the 2nd and 3rd digits (grooming comb)
what are some things you should keep in mind when performing a OHE (ovariohysterectomy) in SGs? (2)
(1) the SG has TWO VAGINAS, AND TWO UTERI. you must remove both if you want to spay (2) the URETERS empty into the vaginas, so they sort of have a weird chloaca thing going on. DO NOT ACCIDENTALLY LIGATE THESE URETERS when doing a spay
how would you do a castration in a SG?
can do a castration as you would with a male cat. (also said "scrotal ablation" but idk what this means in relation to anything else)
what kinda "exit" do SGs have?
what are some gender specific structures for females and males?
FEMALES: they have a POUCH. MALES: CHEST GLAND
describe the conformation of the male external genitalia
"the beans are above the franks" ie, the testicles are CR to the PENIS, because the penis is located in the cloaca. ALSO NOTE: the penis might look and "act" like a worm to clients. They might be alarmed. Know what it looks like
what are the estrus cycles like?
they are seasonally polyestrous, but! the males produce sperm all year around
what should their enclosure be like to accommodate their husbandry?
you must house them in groups, they need an area of flying, and they need a hide box
what is their diet like in the wild?
in autumn they eat mostly plan exudates (eucalyptus gum), in the spring and summer they eat invertebrates
what are some things SGs can be fed in captivity? (5)
fruit, veggies, nectar, bird diet, invertebrates
SGs LOVE mealworms and crickets, but what is a problem with eating too many of these?
theyre low in Ca and high in P--> SG might develop NMBD
how do you restrain a sugar glider?
you iso them
where would you stick for a small blood sample? (2)
(USE ISO) medial tibial a (medial from stifle to tarsus), lateral tail veins
where would you stick for a large blood sample? (2)
(USE ISO) jugular, cr vena cava
how would you determine how much drug to give?
not much info, so use dosages for cats, ferrets,hedgehogs (then go based on their weight)
if you need to place a catheter, where/how?
do an IO route....best place is in the proximal tibia
what are some clinical signs of Nutritional Fibrous Osteodystrophy? (3)
you'd see paresis of rear limbs(kinda like hock dropping in cats), incoordination, pathological fractures (this is often seen if they are fed mealworms/crickets which arent gutloaded, because they are high in P and low in Ca)
what are three nutritional dzs that SGs are prone to?
Nutritional Fibrous Osteodystrophy, diarrhea, and blindness
SGs are social, and if they are kept alone, what things can happen?
(1) SELF MUTILATION- tail, penis, limbs, scrotum, cannabalism of young (2) aberrant b/h- polyphagia, polydipsia, coprophagy, pacing
what are three types of neoplasia that SGs are prone to get?
a client brings in their SG saying it's dead. Before you perform a necropsy, what should you consider?
SGs can go into a TORPOR state (which is similar to hibernation) when there is not enough nutrition around. THEY ARENT DEAD
if you have a SG in torpor, what can you do? what must you remember to do?
If you put them in an incubator it will help raise their temperature up and they will come out of it. HOWEVER, remember to have food available for them because the problem was not enough food in the first place!!! there is a "glider booster" supplement you can get which has vitamins and minerals and glucose for them which you can give
NOT the same as porcupines- no barbs, no toxins, and don't shoot
describe what Anting/Self Anointing is like?
it usually is because of an odor stimuli. they produce frothy saliva, which they then lap onto their spines of the back/flank. The toxins (if they ingested a toxic plant to make the saliva) might damage a potential attacker
what kinda estrous are hedgehogs?
if a hedgehog has some babies, what must you know?
if you disturb them, they will cannabalize the babies
how are hedgehogs born?
their spines are UNDER their skin, but the spines will emerge in about a day
what should the cage be like?
SMOOTH SIDED cage because they will keep running into corners. also a hide box is important.
what is a hedge's diet usually like, and what are some things you can feed them?
they are omnivorous/insectivorous. Usually you can feed them dry reduced calorie cat food (NOT KITTEN FOOD-- THEY TEND TO BECOME OBESE) and you can supplement with 1 TBSP fruits, vegetables,gut loaded insects (if not gut loaded, NMBD might be a prob)
how do you restrain a hedgehog?
Iso. lol. Then use gloves (rubber, leather) or a towel
where are the small volume (<0.5ml) blood draw locations?
lateral saphenous, cepahlic vein, nail clipping
where are the large volume (>0.5ml) blood draw locations?
jug, femoral vessels, cr vena cava
which routes of admin should you avoid in the hedge?
dorsal SQ injections (lol), IV injections
are hedgehogs hind gut fermentors?
what are some routes of admin that are good in a hedgehog?
you can give stuff orally, esp. if it is sweet (and if you inject stuff into mealworms, they will gobble it right up). You can do a IO catheter in the femur. You can also do IM injections
hedgehogs don't have their own drugs, what kinda drugs can you use?
cat and dog drugs are fine to use
is hedge pee more acidic or basic? what is different about their BUN, and which eletrolyte is different but normal?
acidic urine, higher BUN, lower Na
Integument dz-->what might cause quill loss in a hedge?
MITES!! Chorioptic, Sarcoptic, Caparinia tripilis
integument dz--> what two fungi are hedges prone to?
Microsporum sp, Trichophyton erinacei (this one is non-purutic, on the face/pinnae)
Why is obesity such a problem in captive hedges? what other problem does this lead to?
in the wild the majority of time is spent foraging for food (not just sitting around), and lower basal metabolic rate of desert species. Because of this they are prone to HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS
which bacteria are hedges prone/able to get as an infection in their GI?
what two agents might cause Pneumonia in hedges?
neoplasia--> hedges are little cancer magnets. what three cancers are they pretty prone to?
(can be oral or just about anywhere) SCC, mast cell, Lymphosarcoma
what is happening with wobbily hedgehog syndrome?
this is a genetic disorder which causes progressive paralysis. It is similar to MS in humans. No tx.
Visible scrotal sac in males, Anogenital distance very close in females
what should you know about anatomy if you are going to castrate a pdog?
OPEN inguinal rings. (Testicle may be retracted abdominally. also Fat may make testicular isolation challenging)
what should you feed your pdog?
you can feed them rodent blocks, alfalfa hay, grass hay-- he said that timothy hay is all they need (bc in wild, forage grasses)
what kinda cage should you have for your pdog? what kinda stuff should be in the cage?
WIRE CAGE-- they can chew through wood. provide some PVC pipes because they like to tunnel, and thick substrate. Also a nest box for sleeping
what are two methods of restraint for pdogs?
(1) Ketamine combinations (medetomidine, valium, acepromazine) (2) iso (mask or blind intubation)
where would you collect a small blood sample?
L or M saphenous, cephalic veins
where would you collect a large blood sample?
jugular, cr vena cava
4 good locations for IM injections?
Forelimbs (little muscle mass), Quadriceps, glutes, epaxial mm
4 locations for vascular access?
cephalic, jug, saphenous, I/O (tibia)
which drugs should you avoid?
they are rodents with primarily G+ flora (AND HIND GUT FERMENTORS) so AVOID macrolides, lincosamides, and penicillins
once adults, pdogs should only be fed...
rodent blocks and hay (timothy hay)
what are some problems which arise with pdogs and obesity? how can you help curb this?
they are OBLIGATE NOSE BREATHERS and will have dyspnea when obese. they can also get hepatic lipidosis. Remember, only rodent blocks and hay for adults, and provide plenty of active time with rodent balls and PVC pipes
two major infectious/zoonotic dzs which pdogs carry?
MONKEY POX , YERSINIA PESTIS (plague)
how can monkey pox be spread?
Contact or respiratory droplets
CS of monkey pox? tx?
fever, cough, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, nodular rash. no tx just humane euthanasia
CS of plague?
nonspecific: lethargy, depression, respiratory distress, lymphadenopathy, anorexia. do serologic testing (pdogs are known reservoirs!)
two GI bact which they are prone to?
salmonella and Clostridium piliformes
why is dyspnea extra bad for pdogs?
they are OBLIGATE NASAL BREATHERS
what are the two major causes of dyspnea in pdogs?
(1) obesity (2) ODONTOMA--> this is a neoplasia of upper incisors tooth root. Possible dietary management related. Since they are obligate nasal breathers, and this extends into their nasal cavities, the only way to help them breathe is to Create new nasal stoma to manage the disease (basically bore a hole in their sinuses)
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