Exotics - Non-Poultry Birds 2

drraythe's version from 2016-03-10 12:08


Question Answer
Reportable & zoonoticChlamydiophila psittaci
E. Coli
& other protozoal parasites
Chlamydiophila psittaci-is it zoonotic? Is it reportable?BOTH
Chlamydiophila psittaci-where does it go in the body?Intracellularly (CHLAM inside the cell)
Chlamydiophila psittaci → CS?URT
(CHLAMS cant breathe)
How do you dx Chlamydiophila psittaci?Antigen/Ab testing (including elementary body agglutination, complement fixation, ELISA, IFA, PCR)
Culture (often difficult) of ocular/liver/URT/blood
How do you Tx Chlamydiophila psittaci?DOXYCYCLINE!!! (A doxy has the clap) injectable formulation must be specific for IM inj. Oral Tx most commonly used. A 45 day regimen is recommended
How do you dx for Mycobacterium?ACID FAST STAIN. (& if you have TB in your crypts, you might as well take some acid)
When do you see candida albicans? Where?(Yeast) Immunosuppressed. MOUTH. (Think thrush)
Malassezia czs what?Dermatitis (just like itchy dog ears)
When do birds usually get aspergillus? HOW do they get it?IMMUNOCOMPROMISED/ILL PTS. Inhaled spores-ubiquitous in environment (esp. warm/humid climates)
What are the CS for aspergillus?URT/LRT
Wt. loss
2° to other problems
How would you dx aspergillus? (Tx?)MONOCYTOSIS (Tx: Itraconazole 5-10mg/kg PO q24-48h, nebulization w/ amph. B or terbinafine & saline daily, possible not long term cure (granulomatous dz), Sx removal) (ASPARAGUS GIVES YOU MONO)
Macrorhabdosis is what? Happens when?Avian gastric yeast. Immunocompromised PTxs.
aToxoplasma is a what & how does it get around the body?(A toxic thing to have in blood) Blood parasite, part of its life is in the monocytes & macrophages & then it can travel anywhere in the body & then they have it for life (At the monocyte subsay system)
Feather picking? Diarrhea? Think what?GIARDIA (fecal to check for it) (think of little horseshoe crab looking things all over their feathers & theyre tryin to pick them off)
Trichamoniasis has yellow plaques in the mouth...what else has this (so is a Ddx)Pox & Candida albicans
Cochlosoma is a what & how do birds get it?Flagellate parasite. Xmitted by asymptomatically infected society finches, often used as foster parents (fecal to find) (only rich people can afford cochlear implants)
Cryptosporidium-> what is this? Where does this like to live? How do you dx?Parasite which likes to live in mucosal cells (makes sense-crypts full of mucus). You can find them on fecals & they are ACID FAST (remember if you have crypts full of TB, you might as well take some acid)
"Big liver dz" is what?Atoxoplasma (aka Lankasterella) (remember this is a blood parasite that goes into monocytes & macrophages & moves everywhere) (one big liver from the mono railway is all it needs for ATOXIC dose)
Syngamus trachea is a what? Aka? Lives where? CS? Dx?Roundworm, aka gapeworm/redworm. Can see eggs on fecal float. Lives in trachea so it czs:
Respiratory distress
Coughing or sneezing
↑ mortality
Head shaking
Sometimes will see “gaping”
Capillaria is a what? What does this look like/where does it live?Roundworm (think capalini pasta) GI, but also oropharynx & crop, causing white plaques
Cestodes (tapeworms) → how do birds get these?Usually ate a live food item (so usually carnivorous birds)
Sternostoma tracheacolum is a what? Where does it hang out? CS? Dx?TRACHEAL MITE. Live in Trachea & syrinx (not air sacs) so they cz wheezing, head shaking, gaping, dyspnea, voice change & cessation of singing. Low mortality. Tracheal illumination after wetting feathers allows visualization of “black spots” (mites) w/in the lumen, necropsy
Knemidokoptes pilae-what are these? CS?"Scaly leg mites" hyperkeratotic lesions on feet/base of the beak. Pruritus is noted only by attentive owners. (Can rub plant oils on legs to suffocate them out, along w/ some Ivermectin)
What are the 2 Blood sucking mites?Dermanyssus gallinae (red mites)
Ornithonyssus sylviarum (northern or fowl mite)
Dermanyssus gallinae (red mites) → where do they live?Actually live in nesting material & come out at night to feed (not the nyssus to attack at night!)
Ornithonyssus sylviarum (northern or fowl mite) → where do they live?Spend lifecycle on bird (I'd be ornary if I had mites on me all the time too)

Non-Infectious Dz

Question Answer
Too much vitamin C can cz what?Iron storage dz
Iron storage dz happens why? CS? Dx? Tx?Too much citrus & iron in diet. Abdominal distention w/ Hepatomegaly, loss of beak coloring. Bile acids & hypoproteinemia indicate a liver problem. Give water w/ tea (tannins) to bind up iron, supportive care, etc
What yummy fruit is toxic to birdsAvocado?
Which drugs are particularly toxic to birds?Furans & Metronidizoles
Organophosphates cz what signs?CNS
Squamous Cell Carcinoma usually occurs where?Mucocutanous jxns of head, distal wing/phalanges, UP gland
Where do papillomas like to hang out? How can you dx? Tx?Around the vent can use acetic acid (vinegar) & if it blanches you know its a papilloma. Sx removal often curative, but recurrence possible
Where do Lymphoma/LSA like to be, in who?Retrobulbar in psittacine (esp. juvenile African Greys)
Who usually gets lipomas?Fat birds. Esp. budgies.
If you see a hemangiosarcoma, think what?Usually benign, dont do anything
Seeds are deficient in?Seeds deficient in Vitamin A & calcium, as well as most fatty acids
Rough feathers, dry feet, beak is dry, pale around eye, tail is tattered, skin is flaking... edge of beak is overgrown...sounds likeAcute nutritional deficiency
Chronic nutritional imbalance looks likeObesity, wasting, chronic hepatic damage. GI flora imbalance w/ diarrhea & abnormal gram stain
Egg binding usually happens in bids w/ what kinda diet & how old?Seed diet & over 10yo
CS of egg bindingUpright position w/ wide based stance, fluffed, inappetant, space occupying mass in cloaca or coelom, lethargy, unable to defecate
Dx & rxn of egg binding?PE (palpation of egg), radiographs (if stable), Parenteral calcium, SQ fluids, heat supplementation, aspiration of egg, lubrication & manual removal of egg, +/-oxytocin
Which air sac usually ruptures?Most often cervicocephalic AS
What Vx sq?POLYOMA (ventral keel SQ)
Avian IO administration-how?Feel for notch on distal ulna, feel & go in. Distal Ulna > 500 g. Proximal Tibiotarsus < 500 g (easier to hit in er)
How DONT gyou give fluids in birds?No intracelomic
What should you know about intubation?Uncuffed tube
Figure 8 Bandage for?Humeral & more proximal breaks. MUST exercise & ROM for this
Which pain med is good for birds?Butorphanol, bc they have more kappa receptors
When are the only times you use corticosteroids??Shock/toxicity/nervous system compromise.
What kinda corticosteroid should you use? What shouldn’t you do?Use SHORT ACTING. DONT use topicals & watch the CBC bc the bird can get immunocompromised
If you need to work on upper airway, how can you intubate?Air sac cannulation (L thoracic air sac)