Exotics - Non-Poultry Birds 1

drraythe's version from 2016-03-10 12:13


Question Answer
PERCH SIZE?Foot should go 2/3 around (no sandpaper)
6 main VxPolyoma, Pox, Pacheco’s, EEE, WEE, WNV
Parakeet poop? Toucan/lorie/eclectus poop? Raptor poop?Para: Black donut w/ white center
Toucan: Very wet bc fruit diet
Raptor: White "slice" w/ small black portion
Red fecesAmazon parrot
Bright green poopBiliverdinuria liver dz
Metal tox
E. coli
Foul odor poopProtozoa
Occult blood
Seeds in poopHypermotility
PDD (Proventricular Dilation Dz)
Most important Vx if showing/breeding birdPolyoma
Large bulky, pale, feces.Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency
Wear goggles if working w/Herons
How to restrain parrot headComplete ring of thumb & forefinger below mandible
Ascult dorsal celom for? Ventral? Cere?Dorsal: Lungs
Ventral: Hear, ca & cr air sacs
Cere: Upper airways/sinuses
Cere of budgiesBlue - Male
Red - Female.
Cere is wrinkled?Dehydration
Why palpate crop?Might regurg/aspirate during exam if not careful
Explain avian BCS1 = Concave (poor prog)
2 = Flat
3 = Convex (ideal)
4 = Semicircular
5 = Beyond keel
What should you feel in celomic palpation?NOTHING normally.... maybe egg, enlarged liver, mass.
Mass on to tell if papilloma?Blanch w/ application of acetic acid
FECAL GRAM STAIN: what mag?100x (oil)
**What is normal fecal gram stain?150 bacteria/field
70% G+ rod
30% G+ Cocci
No budding yeast or gram negative rods
(Im positive that a rod of bird poop will be 70% more fun than this test)
How would a carnivorous bird's fecal be different?G- bact are normal for them
**What is a borderline malnutrition bird's fecal stain be like?Fewer than 150bact/hpf
>90%G+ rod
<10%G+ Cocci
Occasional G-rod
What would an abnormal fecal stain look like?Many G-rods or monomorphic bacterial population, budding yeast or hyphae
Angry bird looks likePupils flashing (dilating & contracting)
Tail flaring
Head bobbing
Feathers fluffed & shaking
When dremmeling a break, what should you knowDont go too far - bill tip organ
What kinda scissors for a wing trip?Curved BLUNT TIP
Wing trim → whats a blood feather, what should you know about ER Tx?Black shaft - DONT CUT. They will bleed to death. If cut,/broken grab at base & stabilize radius+ulna & then twist & pull
If you're gonna trim a feather, where?At covert line (feathers over bigger feathers)
Which feathers do you clip in a large bird & which in a small bird?In large bird, trim all primaries (ten of them) EXCEPT leave last longest (10). Smaller birds, trim secondaries too (bc theyre so light)
"Cosmetic" wing clip meansCan glide but no lift
When would you ESPECIALLY want to do a polyoma Vx? WHERE do you give a polyoma Vx?Mult Birds in home, or traveling, or breeder bird. Give SQ in ventral keel.
Polyoma usually found w/ what other dz?PBFD (Psittacine Beak & Feather Dz)


Question Answer
EDTA tube will cz hemolysis in which birds? Use what instead?Lithium heparin & heparinized syringe in Corvidae, currasows, crowned cranes, hornbills & brush turkeys, ostriches
How much blood should you draw from a bird? What is a bird’s average blood volume?Blood volume is 10% of body weight. You can draw 1% of body weight!!
Where are the few places you can draw blood from?Deep ulnar vein (aka basilic aka wing vein), Medial metatarsal vein, Jugular vein, Sinus foraminus occipitalis (occipital sinus → jugular & occipital vein some off of this)
Vein of choice for venipuncture?Jugular
How do you find the jugular, which jugular would you wanna pick?Jugular is in Apteria of neck (place where there are very few feathers) & the RIGHT 1 is larger (Anseriformes i.e. ducks dont have apteria, colombiforms i.e. pigeons no jug only a plexs)
What does basilic (wing) vein turgidity (like vein filling-if I press it will it bounce back?) tell you?Tells you if dehydrated/in shock
What should venous refill be (& which vessel) & what % dehydration is considered shock?(Basilic aka wing vein) Venous refill should be 1-2 sec. >7% dehydration is shock
Whats a normal leukocyte count? Stress leukogram?Normal 5000-15,000. Stress UP TO 20,000.
What might a leukocyte count >30,000 mean?Chlamydiophylosis, Aspergillosis, Mycobacteriosis (bacterial septicemia, leukemia) (SO, infectious or leukemia if over 30,000 basically)
What’s unique about Budgies, lovebirds, canaries blood?Lower total leukocyte & heterophil count, smaller RBC size (little birdies w/ little blood & less WBCs)
What’s unique about Canaries/Amazons blood?Low heterophil: lymphocyte ratio (yellow singing amazon lady is less hetero)
What’s unique about raptor blood?Eosinophils
What happens when a raptor has poor nutritional management?They get eosinopenia (they have eosinophils to get this) & heteropenia
Which type of birds has smaller RBCs?Passarines
Largest RBCs?Ratities & Penguins
Avian PCV?43-55
What can basophilic stippling indicate?Lead intox, IV hemolysis, erythrocytic ballooning
Normal retic amount in blood?2-5%
Bird platelets have _________Nucleuses
Most predominant inflammatory cell in most sp?Heterophil
HeteroPHILIA can happen from...Stress, corticosteroids, young birds may have more normally
HeteroPENIA is associated w/ what other WBC thingLEUKOPENIA
When would you see heteropenia?(Associated w/ leukopenia) G- infxn, septicemia, circovirus in African greys
Explain pseudoheteropeniaHeterophils most likely to smuge on blood smear
Eosinophilia has been linked to?Marked tissue trauma
When would a basophilia be normal?Neonate, higher in conures & spectacled amazon parrot
When might basophilia occur?Chronic resp. dz or severe stress
Which species of birds are Lymphocytic (have normally a lot of lymphocytes)Amazons, canaries, OWLS (40-70% of total count)
What should you know about most hemoparasites?No Tx necessary-tx more hazardous. Tx plasmodium if illness occurs
Plasmodium (avian malaria) → looks like? Vector? Main CS? Main necropsy findings?Signet. Mosquitos. Anemia. Splenomegaly. (Circular plasma TV)
Leucocytozoon → which cell does it invade? What does it look like? What is the distribution? What is the vector?**GROSSLY DISTORTS HOST CELL (zoo of weird shaped cells) invades immature RBC or WBC. Worldwide distribution except for S. /Central America & Caribbean (no vectors there). Vector is Simuliid blackflies
Leukocytozoon is fatal when/who?Fatal infxn reported in Psittacines, young (aberrant intermediate stages)
If you see a microfilaria?No Tx
Toxoplasma casesSerious fatal infxn (TOXIC to DEATH)
What serum stuff dont birds have?No bilirubin (can try to look at bile acids)
What should you know about creatinine & BUN in birds?Useless-need to look at uric acid.
Hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia hypoproteinemia in birds?Pointless
Most valuable sign of renal dz in birds?Polyuria
Largest inflammatory cellMonocyte


Question Answer
Polyoma is a dz in?Budgies, nestlings
Polyoma affects ages how?Young birds-high nestling mortality, fledgling morbidity. Adults may be asymptomatic carriers
CS of polyoma?CS: Lethargy, fluffed, delayed crop emptying, sudden death
Describe carriers of polyomaMany birds w/o CS will remain viremic & shed virus in their droppings (+/-feather dander & skin) → become virus-negative (may still have Ab titer)
If budgies survive polyoma, what might happen to their feathers?French molt (lose primaries & 2° feathers)
If you see a budgie w/ a French molt...POLYOMA (poly got no feathers, don’t want no crackers)
4 major things you should screen for?Polyoma, PBFD, Chlamyidophila, pacheckos
Polyoma histo?INIB (intranuc inclusion bodies) (polly in the nuc.)
Psittacine Beak & Feather dz (PBFD) → what kinda virus?Circo (circle around their beak)
What are the CS of Psittacine Beak & Feather dz (PBFD)? (& what age are affected?)Chronic progressive dz in birds over 8-10 months of age-starts w/ lack of beak & down powder, then progresses to feather loss, abnormal pin feathers (constricted, clubbed, or stunted), abnormal mature feathers (blood in shaft) & eventual necrosis/fracture of distal beak & exposure of bone.... 2° INFXNS HIGH
Clubbed feathers?PBFD
Prognosis of PBFD?Most birds die in 6-12 months, some live years
Acute infxn of PBFD happens in who? What happens?Acute infxn in nestling Cockatoos-regurgitation→ constricting annular feather bands → death
PBFD is common in which birds, how does it usually present?Inf. common in lovebirds & Eclectus parrots, but many have no CS (love eclectic feather dzs)... also, Common in Lories w/ a mortality rate of only ~30%
PBFD Often concurrent infxn w/...Polyomavirus
Histo finding w/ PBFD?INTRACYTOPLASMIC IBs (bc circovirus is RNA) (remember polyoma is intraNUC bc DNA...Polly in the nuc cage)
How contagious is PBFD? What’s the mortality?SUPER contagious, usually terminal
What should you know about birds positive for PBfd?ALL positive birds are actively shedding virus whether they are showing signs or not.
Pacheco’s dz (PD) → what kinda virus?Herpes!!! (Patchy Herpes sores)
Is Pacheco’s acute or chronic? How contagious? How is it xmitted? Main CS?ACUTE, HIGHLY CONTAGEOUS, transferred via secretions. Most common CS is sudden death. Bright yellow urates w/ scant feces
Bright green/yellow poop?PACHECHOS (patchy green & yellow colors)
Bollinger’s bodies?Pox (intracytoplasmic IBs)
Proventricular Dilation dz (PDD) → what kinda virus?Borna virus (BORNA THIS WAY-w/ a dilated proventriculus)
PDD usually happens in who? What are the CS?Psittacines, mostly African grey parrots. Dilation (often massive) of proventriculus (forming a “J” shape & causing the ventriculus to be palpable) → owner will say crop not emptying for several hrs
J-shape organ on rads & abnormal fecal w/ seeds in it is what dz?PDD
Viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle’s dz czd by what kinda virus?Paramyxo (pair-o mixed up Vs)
Viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle’s dz (VVND) how contagious? Hows the morbidity? CSs?In <60hrs, DEAD. & HIGHLY INFECTIOUS. & CROSSES SPECIES... Significant threat to the poultry industry worldwide
How does Newcastle get xmitted?Resp aerosols (breathe in the castle air)
*Reportable & zoonotic virusesNewcastle dz
Avian Influenza
Eastern Equine Encephalitis
West Nile virus
Avian Influenza is what virus?Orthomyxo (virus for flu...feel like I need orthotics when I have the flu)
Natural reservoir for Avian Influenza?Waterfowl