Exotics- Hamsters

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-11-03 14:33


Question Answer
Why do we like chinese hamsters for lab stuff?they have the fewest amount of chromosomes- 11; 2N= 22 (so Research cytogenetics, diabetes mellitus, toxicology)
what should you know about the european hamster?they are VERY GRUMPY (also the largest)
how much volume is a SAFE blood draw for a hamster? (volume?)5.5 ml/kg. (volume is 78 ml/kg)
what should be noted about the cage for a hamster? how about food/water things? what should bedding be?in the cage you should have a LARGE door to remove the hamster safely, and make sure the cage isnt made of soft wood, metal or plastic or they'll chew their way out. Also provide a hide area. you want small heavy food bowls (they'll flip them) and water sipper bottles. For bedding you can use recycles paper, corn byproducts, or wood shavings (NOT AROMATIC WOOD THO)
caution with hamster wheels?trim long haired hamsters (they'll get caught in them) (also not the wire ones-- itll break their legs)
are hamsters social or loners?usually kept solitary
what is the hamster's normal diet?mainly herbiverous, with with occasional small vertebrates and insects
what should you probably avoid in a hamsters diet?few if any seeds--> will cause osteoporosis (seeds high in P and low in Ca)
how many toes in the front? back?5 in the front (need for food and bedding manipulation) 5 in the back
what are hamster sebaceous glands used for, what do they look like, where are they, and when do they change?they are used to mark territory and stimulate mating bh. They are located on the hip/flank and are dark brown patches which are fun covered (larger in males than in females). A SEXUALLY AROUSED MALE will have readily visible glands and secretions will cause fur to become matted
what tooth problem are hamsters prone to?caries (cavities) because their molars tend to retain food. particular diets will make this worse (like seeds)
where does the hamster cheek pouch begin and end, how do they empty it, and how does it not get prolapsed all the time?starts as an evagination from lateral cheek at the diasthema. it extends along the head and neck to the scapulae. The sac is thin walled, distensible, and muscular and is highly vascularized. There is a ligament at the end of the pouch which anchors it so that when the hamster empties the pouch it does not prolapse. emptying happens when they manually squeeze contents forward with front paws.
why do hamsters only regurge and vomiting is unlikely?there is a limiting ridge at the junction of the esophagus and the stomach
explain the stomach anatomy of a hamsterthere is a proventriculus which is a squamous forestomach where fermentation can take place. there is also the ventriculus
what is unique about the hamster brain?MSOOTH CEREBRUM (generalized areas of function). They have LARGE olfactory bulbs and have acute hearing and olfaction
what's cool about hamster communication? hamster recognition? can communicate with ultrasonic and sonic communication. Also, hamsters can recognize individuals and receptive mates by odor (large olfactory bulbs in brain)
how many nipples does a hamster have?FEMALES have 6 pr of nipples
how can you determine the gender of a hamster?males have an inc anogenital distance, adult females have a more blunt posterior, the scrotal bulge is pronounced in males, and females have nipples (6 pr)
what should you know about hamster repro? (one big thing)TAKE OUT THE MALE. the female will chew his head off
what should you know about hamster bites? (and what should you avoid)they can bite just because they can! or if roughly handled, startled awaked or injured. so DONT SURPRISE THEM, and WAKE THEM SLOWLY AND GENTLY
two methods of restraint for a hamster?(1) over the back grip: place hamster on flat surface, cover hamster with your palm with thumb hear the head and middle finger near the tail. (2) grasp loose skin of scruff and back- when skin is taught over abdomen and chest, ham is secure. eyes might bulge **caution- there is a lot of skin here. might still turn and bite
about how long should a PE of a hamster take? which part should you do last? what's important to get accurate?<5min. ORAL LAST. make sure you have the weight to the gram.
what tools should you use during the oral exam?Metal otoscope cones for oral exam-- they'll chew up anything else.
what is the safe amount for a blood draw?.0.5 ml is a safe amount to draw
blood draw places for lab and pets are same as in gerbil, know theseand know in pet jugular and cr vena cava is your best bet
how does castration affect the blood?can dec RBCs by 25-30%. It can be alleviated by admin of testosterone
*what does the WBC population look like in hamsters?they are a lymphocytic species which means 60-80% of WBCs are lymphocytes
what's really important to know about hamsters before you start doing a necropsy?THEY HIBERNATE. They will look dead. were they out in the cold garage? make sure you check this. (i dont think we need to know, but the WBCs dec during hibernation)
what are three reasons you'd want to do radiographs on a hamster?cheek pouch impaction, bloat, and abdominal masses
poorly defined individual organs on radiographs for hamsters- how can you ID the heart? kidneys?heart Apex points caudoventrally, left. Kidneys dorsal near 1st lumbar vertebral body.
what 5 viruses can you serologically test for in hamsters?Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Sendai Virus, Mouse pneumonia, virus, Hamster polyoma virus, Hamster parvovirus
Tyzzer’s Disease is caused by what agent? when do hamsters usually get this dz?caused by Clostridium pilliforme (in a tizzy, take a pill. remember clostridium looks like a tennis racket). Happens in immunocompromised hams
How sensitive are has to Tyzzer's dz? what are the CSs? What does necropsy look like? (Tx?)hams have inc mortality to tyz than compared to mice and rats. They appear generally ill- poor hair coat, depression, dehydration, diarrhea, death w/o signs. On necropsy you will see necrotic hepatic foci, with maybe intestinal lesions. (tx of supportive care and abx)
Proliferative Ileitis aka WET TAIL is caused by what? what body system is affected? what should you know about this agent?lawsonia intracellularis, causing DIARRHEA (GI) in any age ham. *there is POTENTIAL SPREAD to other species
wet tail (proliferative ileitis) causes what sequale, and what is tx?(diarrhea caused by lawsonia intracellularis) sequale of obstruction, intussusuception, rectal prolapse. (from inflammation and straining). Can give fluid support and abx
explain what is happening in dysbiosis, and how do you dx?Dysbiosis is a IATROGENIC condition where the inappropriate abx is used on a ham and their normal flora are killed off, allowing an Overgrowth of Clostridium difficile. Because it's iatrogenic, you can dx based off of history.
what are some inappropriate abx to give to a ham? how would you treat them if you gave them one of these and they got dysbiosis?penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, lincomycin, vancomycin, clindamycin, cephalosporins, bacitracin, oral gentamicin, tylosin, and Dihydrostreptomycin, streptomycin. treatment is like for the gerbil- supportive care, and appropriate broad-spectrum abx
what are 4 major players in causing pneumonia in hams?CAR (cilia associated respiratory bacillus), Corynebacterium kutcheri, Pasteurella pneumotropica, Streptococcal spp (and bordetella bronchiseptica)
*how does bordetella affect hamsters? what should you know about this dz agent?hamsters are RESISTANT to it, but can be carriers, and it is ZOONOTIC, ESP TO CHILDREN. If they get it, CSs are tachypnea or dyspnea, purulent rhinitis, sticky eyelids, and a POOR prognosis
what three nutritional disorders are hamsters prone to?Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis, Bladder Stones, and molar caries (cavities)
* what is the most common cause of death in the aged hamster?AMYLOIDOSIS (no tx)
what problem can hamsters get with their adrenals?HYPERadrenocortisism
what heart condition do aged hamsters usually get? CS? they get cardiomyopathy, and will present with tachypnea, lethargy, anorexia, hypothermic extremities. (tx is similar to dogs and cats)
**Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus--> what kinda virus causes this? which age does it affect? what's important to know about the vector? ARENAvirus which causes a rare dz of the YOUNG hamster. IT IS ZOONOTIC
**what are the clinical signs of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus? how do you dx and what must you do if the ham is positive upon necropsy?a YOUNG hamster which has chronic wasting, subclinical infection, and MULTIORGAN inflammation. DX is PCR on necropsy, and you MUST THROW AWAY THE ENCLOSURE
which dz must you throw away the enclosure due to it being able to persist in the enviro for a long time?Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
hamster polyoma virus is caused by what? what kinda problems does it cause? how do you dx this?polyomavirus is a DNA ONCOGENIC VIRUS. it will cause neoplasms in ADULT AND yOUNG hAMSTERS. DX: Cytology or histology along with tissue PCR confirms the diagnosis
explain how hamster polyoma virus affects adults and young hams differently(1) ADULT: usually get Trichoepithelioma (hair follicle base tumor) (2) YOUNG: usually get Multicentric lymphoma
what are the clinical signs for hamster parvovirus?there will be a dec litter size for the dam, in the baby hamsters 2-4 weeks old you will see a dome shaped crania, potbelly and testicular atrophy, incisor discoloration, malformation, and loss
which virus of hamsters causes weird birth defects?hamster parvovirus
what fungal dzs do hamsters get?fungal dz is rare, but they can get Dermatophytosis (Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp) and these have ZOONOTIC POTENTIAL
what is the pinworm that hamsters can get? what is the description of the hamster most likely to get pinworms? how does it spread/infect?S. mesocriceti (hamster) <--(not sure if need to know specifically or not). This usually happens to young immunocompromised males. the infection can be fecal-oral or aerosolization (eggs so tiny they can float)
what are the clinical signs of a hamster with pinworms? What must you do if the hamster has pinworms?see CSs in a HEAVY LOAD of parasites. You will see Decreased activity, weight loss, rectal prolapse, rectal irritation, self mutilation, impaction and intussusception can all be seen. Environmental cleanup and tx is NECESSARY
what is a ddx of demodectic mange in the ham?hyperadrenocortisism (hairloss, skin probs, etc)
what are the three main ectoparasites of hamsters?(1) demodectic mange (D. aurati which is elongate, and D. criceti which is short and stubby) (2) Notoedres catii (mange of mites) (3) N. notoedres (another mange mite) <--INTENSE PRURITUS. Tx all with ivermectin (duh)
what are the two tapeworms which can affect hams? how do you tx?Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta. Tx with praziquantel.
**zoonotic tapeworm?Hymenolepis nana
Hymenolepis nana is aka? what's important to know about it? what are the clinical signs?aka dwarf tapeworm. IT IS ZOONOTIC!! CSs can range from benign, to intestinal obstruction and death if there is a heavy load. (direct or indirect lifestyle, CAN AUTOINFECT HUMANS)
hams are also suseptible to what two GI parasites which arent tapes?giardia, and cryptosporidia
when does a hams risk of neoplasia inc? what are the 4 most common neoplasms(based on location in body), in order from most to least?>2yrs, over 50% incidence of tumors. most common in order are: endocrine>lymphoreticular>dermatologic>GI
how does an adrenal cortex neoplasia present?(carcinoma or adenoma) you will see alopecia, bh change, skin hyperpigmentation (basically cushings), PU/PD, inc serum chlosterol, inc ALK-P
explain the forms of lymphoma in a young hamster, and in the old ham.(1) ADULT: gets (a) multicentric-(Thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, liver) (b) Cutaneous form (Lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, patchy alopecia, exfoliative erythroderma) (2) YOUNG: these get EPIZOOTIC due to Hamster polyoma virus in young hamsters
what is the most common skin tumor of hamsters, and where do these especially like to hang out?MELANOMA, the flank glands in males are especially targeted
who is more susceptible to dysbiosis- hams or gerbils?HAMS- they have that proventriculus and such
if a hamnster is in non-hypovolemic shock, what is the Crystalloid/colloid combination you can give it?10-15 ml/kg / 5 ml/kg hetastarch
which type of castration should you perform?CLOSED castration- they have open inguinal rings
describe a cheek pouch pexy procedure(necessary to avoid recurrence of cheek pouch eversion) do a full thickness, percutaneous (just go through all the skin with the needle), single suture of 4-0 or smaller material snugly. No stent necessary. do NOT without food, and then remove in roughly 10-14 days