Exotics- Gerbils

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-11-03 14:34


Question Answer
when are gerbils most active (during day, night, etc)diurnal (during day) with Crepuscular tendencies (Active at dawn and dusk). Another slide says in captivity though, their activity is nocturnal or crepuscular (peak activity at night).
what kinda enviro. do gerbils usually live in? are they social or loners?desert enviro (NE china and mongolia) and they are social
what kinda estrous are gerbils? what kinda ovulation? polyestrous, with a slight winter depression. Ovulation is spontaneous. (there is a fertile post-partum estrous, and gestation may be prolonged because of the post-partum estrous causing delayed implantation)
when do you want to pair gerbils? how long does the pairing last? what should you know after you pair them?pair at 7-8 weeks. they form stable monogamous pair bonds. DO NOT introduce new gerbils into the group after this, there will be aggression.
If a gerbil is stomping its foot, what do you think is going on?do this when theyre excited or threatened
how do you determine gender in gerbils? what is a structure both genders have?the anogenital distance is greater in males. Also males have an os penis (baculum), their scrotum is darkly pigmented, and they have a midventral marking gland. both M and F have genital papilla.
how many mammae/where/what gender?females have 2 pairs of mammae- thoracic and inguinal
*If you have a gerbil with a midventral patch of missing fur, are you concerned?No. Gerbils have a midventral marking gland there
what is up with the midventral marking gland? (gender diff? purpose?)It has hormonal control, and is responsive to testosterone, which means its twice as large in males.
how many toes on front and back limbs?4 on front and 5 on the back
what are 3 adaptations for the very arid enviro they live in?DONT sweat, and produce super concentrated urine (only 3-4 drops a day), and have SUPER ENLARGED ADRENAL GLANDS because of their role in water conservation?
***which gland in the gerbil is super enlarged, and why?super enlarged adrenal glands, bc they produce aldosterone which is involved in water conservation
*when does the thymus involute?TRICK QUESTION-- it doesn't! PERSISTS in adults!
what's the diastema?gap between their incisors and molars (1 pr incisors and 3 pr molars <---dont think we need to know)
how do a gerbils teeth grow or not grow?incisors hyposodont and grow continuously. but molars do NOT.
what is a gerbils diet like? what should you feed them with, and how? what should you NOT feed them?opportunistic vegetarians. you should feed them about 8g/day of a pelleted feed and feed them on the ground. do NOT feed them treats, and do NOT feed them rat/mouse food ((may develop periodontal disease, obesity and diabetes
what's an essential component of the enclosure you need? what kinda substrate should you have?NEED A SECURE LID- they are escape artists (they usually come back to the cage which is nice though). Sand or corn byproducts make good substrate, be sure to avoid cedar (VOCs). (nice though, very concentrated urine means easy to clean, but still clean regularly)
explain how you manually restrain a gerbil (3)Scoop up in palm, OR scruff. If holding tail, grab securely at BASE of tail, the tip will deglove as a defense mechanism
what should you examine first in your PE? what should you examine last? how long should your exam take?first start with observational exam to get BASELINE RR before you start freaking them out. Examine oral cavity last, they hate that. your exam should take 5min.
what's up with temp or resp ascultation of a gerbil?temp not usually done, and asculting is kinda futile. just listening to the respirations is more helpful than asculting.
under what condition would you perform a venipuncture? what is their blood volume and how much can you draw?do UNDER ANESTHESIA. their blood volume is 65-80ml/kg (which is basically 7.7ml/100g) and you can draw 0.8mL safely
where are venipuncture sites for LAB gerbils?retroorbital venous plexus, cardiac puncture
what are the less invasive venipuncture sites you'd prolly use in a pet gerbil? which sites arent really super great?(less invasive usually gets you a lower volume). saphenous vein, cr vena cava or jugular. NOT super awesome: cut toenail doesnt give a good representation of the blood, and the tail vein will have higher leukocytes and lymphocytes than cardiac blood
how common is Serumal Lipemia? is there any reasons/gender predilections/etc?It's common, and even more common in males >13m. A major cause of this is if sunflower seeds are added to the diet.
what's unique about their RBCs and what's the RBC lifespan?Stippled RBCs normal, and reticulocytes higher is normal. Their RBC lifespan is only 9-10 days which makes sense for the other stuff.
what is the sexual dimorphism when it comes to blood parameters?MALES=HIGHER. MCV is higher, Hb and Hct is higher. MCHC is higher. The total amount of leukocytes is higher, as well as lymphocytes. Their lymphocyte to heterophil ratio is higher also- 6.1:1 in males, and 3.2:1 in females <--almost double
if you're doing a fecal smear in a gerbil, what are you prolly looking for? giardia (internal parasites are uncommon in gerbils).
perineal tape prep can be used to detect what in a gerbil?Hymenolepiasis (a cestode aka tapeworm)
Facial eczyma (aka sore nose, aka nasal dermatitis)--> how does this present? what problems can it cause? ddx?you will see Erythematous lesions adjacent to nares, as well as inc Harderian gland secretions. There will be alopecia and moist dermatitis. This can lead to secondary infections such as with Staph. aureus or S xylosis. (causes are usually the humidity is too low, or there is pine or cedar shavings). DDX: barbering of mice
how can you help prevent facial eczyma? how can you help treat it?PREVENTION: sand bath, appropriate humidity (not too low!), avoid volatile wood shavings. TREAT: cleans face and give topical and/or systemic abx for 2* infxn
what is the "tail slip" of a gerbil?antipredator mechanism-- will deglove their tail to get away, so never grab anywhere but at the base of the tail if you must.
Tyzzer’s disease--> what causes this, and what part of the body is affected?Clostridium pilliformis (in a tizzy? take a pill), GI tract, but gerbils are very susceptible so Death with or without premonitory signs or diarrhea or other signs is a possibility
what would you see on necropsy of a gerbil affected with Tyzzer's dz?Multiple hepatic necrotic foci
what are predisposing enviro factors to Tyzzer's dz? is there any tx?Overcrowding, high environmental temperature, heavy parasite load, poor diet all contribute. Contaminated bedding is a major cause (it's clostridium, so it can live in spore form, get rid of all bedding). Treatment is supportive care and maybe tetracycline, but gerbils are very susceptible so usually they're found dead
what are some viral dzs of gerbils?non listed- very rare in gerbils! yay!
what are some fungal dzs gerbils can get?rare-- if anything, going to get Dermatophytosis (Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp.), which we care about bc of zoonotic potential
what are three parasites which gerbils are prone to?(parasitism is rare in gerbils) Giardia, pinworms, and Hymenolepis nana (cestode)
what are the CS of pinworms in gerbils?no clinical dz
**what is Hymenolepis nana, how does it affect gerbils, and what is important to know about this?it's a tapeworm (cestode). It results in Dehydration, mucoid diarrhea, and debilitation. It's highly infectious AND ZOONOTIC***
what is the main ectoparasite of the gerbil? what are the clinical signs?Demodex meroni. you will see Alopecia, hyperemia, ulceration, thin scaly skin, secondary bacterial pyoderma
what are the most common neoplasms of the gerbil?Female reproductive system, skin , subcutis, Tumors of the ventral abdominal scent gland, Melanomas of the ear, foot, tail base
****whats important to know about Gerbil seizures? explain what's going onGerbils have a INHERITED, GENETIC problem where they have a Deficiency in glutamine synthetase. Because of this, they will start to have Spontaneous, reflex, stereotypic, tonic-clonic seizures which start at 2mo and RESOLVE AT 6mo!! usually Sudden stress, handling, new environment precipitate this problem, but early handling can help mitigate. No tx recc, and no last effect of sezure- they'll just go away after 6mo
*If you are going to administer things intraperitoneally, how would you do it, and what must you keep in mind?put them in Ventrodorsal recumbency(on their back), then travel below abdomen and extend their hind limb. ***INJECT IN THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE GERBIL TO AVOID THE CECUM, LIVER, AND SPLEEN
which routes to give medication should you avoid, and what's the alternative?dont admin in food or water- wont know how much they actually got. For enteral, Gastric lavage or oral syringe preferred
what is Dysbiosis, and how sensitive are gerbils to this?Clostridial overgrowth and enterotoxemia secondary to killing of natural gram positive flora from inappropriate antibiotic administration. Gerbils are LESS SUSCEPTIBLE than hamsters, though
what is the prognosis of dysbiosis, and what are some treatment/support options?GUARDED prognosis. some things you can do to try to help are: fluid therapy, metronidazole, motility modifiers, nutritional support, transfaunation, lactobacillus, Cholestyramine (Binds toxins of enterotoxemia)
what are three contraindicated drugs in the gerbil??Streptomycin, Dihydrostreptomycin, procaine (Direct toxicity neuromuscular blockade)
what are 4 antibiotics which WOULD be good for gerbils?Sulfa drugs, metronidazole, Flouroquinolones, Aminoglycosides
how long would you fast a gerbil before anesthesia?TRICK QUESTION- you would NOT FAST a gerbal before anesthesia- they have limited glycogen stores and they cant vomit
which anesthetic agent would you want, and which would you not want?ISO VIA FACE MASK would be the best. injectable agents should be avoided, because they cause fatality, prolonged recovery and an inability to provide a surgical plane of anesthesia
what should you keep in mind if castrating a gerbil?PERFORM A CLOSED CASTRATION- they have open inguinal canals
If a gerbil's tail is degloved, what is recommended you do?Amputation of bloody stump recommended