Exotics- G-pigs

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-11-03 14:32

G pigpig

Question Answer
what is the gpig diet like?herbivorous ONLY. (can feed gpig pellets, grasshay, need water, fresh veggies, NEED ASORBIC ACID WHICH IS VITAMIN C)
are gpigs social or loners?social- Seek physical contact with other GP when housed in group
when are gpigs most active?Crepuscular (dawn and dusk)
what should you know about gpig food preferences?they are formed early in life... May refuse to eat food if shape, type presentation is changed after 6 m of age--> SO, Expose to a variety of foodstuffs, sizes and types while young to avoid problems later
which vitamin do gpigs need, and why?VITAMIN C! they lack the enzyme L-gulonolactase oxidase which converts glucose to asoric acid (vit C).
what are foods high in vit c which you can give to gpigs?leafy greens (kale, parsley, beet greens, chicory, spinach), red and green peppers, Brocolli, tomatoes, kiwi fruit, oranges
how often should you change food/water dishes?often- they crap a lot, and in everything
how can you teach a gpig to use a sipper bottle?Inject chewed slurry of pellets into sipper tube of water bottle to teach to use
*what should the construct of the cage be like?Plastic metal or wire caging with a solid floor (give a cardboard box hide too)
**describe what the incisors and molars are like in a gpig?INCISORS /AND/ MOLARS GROW CONTINUOUSLY UNLIKE ALL THE OTHER RODENTS SO FAR (all hyposodont)
**what color are a gpigs incisors?WHITE, unlike all the other rodents
what's different about a gpigs GI tract? what does this mean for it's bh?they have a LONG colon (its like 60% of their GI, a rats is 16%), their normal flora is lactobacillus, and they are coprophagic-- so they are basically tiny horses
how do you determine the gender of a gpig?NOT AG distance and NOT nipples-- they have little difference and both have nipples. If you look at their genitals, it's like a Y, if there is a dot above the Y, thats a boy, because the dot is the prepuce. You can also apply digital pressure above the prepuce to exteriorize the penis, or palpate the os penis through the skin.
what should you know about the vaginal membrane of the gpig female?it is intact unless she is in estrus or it's prepartum
when do males/females reach sexual maturity? what kinda cycle does the female have, and how long is the cycle?males reach maturity in 3m, females in 2m (Peak reproductive activity at 4m-20m). they are Non-seasonally polyestrous with spontaneous ovulation, so they breed year round in captivity. their cycle is about 15-17 days. Can usually breed till about 4-5yo
what can happen in a female gpig postpartum?Fertile post partum estrus occurs 2-10 hrs post parturition
what is the bh of a gpig in proestrus? (basically, mating bh?)Active, chase their cage mates, sway the hindquarters, make gutteral sounds
and what signal do they give when theyre in estrus?they show lordosis (sway their back) as a copulatory reflex
how can you confirm there was copulation with gpigs?you can find a copulatory plug
*****whats super important to know about the timing of breeding your female gpig?THEIR PELVIC SYMPHISIS CLOSES AT 6 MONTHS! If you don't breed them before then (notes say prior to 7-8mo) then you will need a C-section to get babies out from a concepton after this time window
what condition are the babies born in?precocious- fully furred and open eyes! within a few hrs and walk and lap food from pans.
how do you carry a gpig?support their weight in one hand, cup dorsum in the other hand
instead of fight or flight they have..freeze or flight. and they might try to explosively escape from your grasp, so Keep GP not used to handling in carrier
how do you pick up a gpig?place hand across shoulders. thumb behind front legs and fingers well forward on opposite side. pick up and hold upright.
how to carry a gpig?support bottom in one hand, and scruff with the other
which part of the PE is done last?oral cavity
what are the three main sites for venipuncture?metatarsal vein, lateral saphenous vein, cephalic vein (small amounts), cr vena cava (NOT JUG- they have no neck! so difficult and stressful)
how much can be collected?7-10% of BV can be collected (so roughly 1.5ml he said)
what is the pH for gpig urine?9.0 is NORMAL (just know its super basic)
what should you know about ALT levels in gpigs?ALT activity low in gpigs, so not a sensitive or specific marker for hepatocyte injury
hypercholesteremia is ____ in the gpigcommon. (Associated with fatty infiltration of liver and other tissues)
***what is a Foa - Kurloff cell?? describe. When are they seen most? what do they think they do?Leukocyte unique to the Guinea Pig & Capybara. Its a mononuclear cell the size of a large lymphocyte, with a VERY LARGE, SLIGHTLY GRANULAR, MAGENTA cytoplasmic inclusion body. they are highest in females during preg, it may create a physiological barrier between fetus and dam
The predominant circulating leukocyte in healthy guinea pigs is the___?lymphocyte. Foa-Kurloff cells may comprise 3 to 4% of leukocyte diff. count.
which castration method (preferred population control method) can you do in gpigs?CLOSED OR OPEN! although their inguinal ring is open, they have a large epididymal fat pad in the vaginal tunic so theyre less likely to herniate
vascular access in a gpig...what would you do?usually IO- you can even use a syringe pump with IO. IV is to difficult to access and maintain, but in labs a port can be put in.
where do you give SQ injections? IM?SQ: upper back. IM: lumbar mm
do you preanesthetically fast gpigs?...YES. unlike all the rest, yes. The fasting decreases mechanical compression of lungs and diaphragm and dec chances of vomiting. (USE ISO)
Antibiotic associated enterotoxemia aka dysbiosis... what is a gpigs predom type of gi flora? which abx are they sensitive to, because of their type of flora?predom G+. sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, Chlortetracycline, tetracycline, Clindamycin, erythromycin, lincomycin... killing off their flora leads to an overgrowth of clostridium difficile
clinical signs and tx for dysbiosis?CS: Diarrhea, Anorexia, Dehydration, Hypothermia. TX: (1) supportive (warmth, fluids, lactobacillus or live yogurt culture, healthy gpig slurry). (2) to tx the c-diff: Chloramphenicol 50 mg/kg PO q 8h, Metronidazole PO (dont think we need to know super details)
if you are tx a gpig with antimicrobials, what should you do?provide lactobacillus
what are safe choices of abx for gpigs?sulfas, Flouroquinolones, Chloramphenicol (DONT give flor instead of chlor), aminoglycosides (cefazolin parenterally)
why do gpigs get scurvy? what are the clinical signs of this (of hypovintaminosis C), and tx?need CONSTANT source of vitamin C, and it cant be provided in pellets because it has a SHORT half life. Will see breakdown of connective tissue including bone, blood, and skin. Tx with injectable or oral vitamin C
Infectious Enterititis (diarrhea)--> what are the main bacterial contenders? (3 main, 3 extra)(usually fecal contamination of food).. bolded ones were C. perferingens, E. coli, L. monocytogenes. Also listed were salmonella, C. pilliforme, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Infectious Enterititis (diarrhea)--> what are the main parasitic contenders? (4)cryptosporidium, eimeria, Balantidium, Paraspidodera uncinata (roundworm)
Infectious Enterititis (diarrhea)--> what is the main viral contender?possibly corona
what is going on with the dz "slobbers"?theyre all wet and drooly (Wetting of chin and forepaw, secondary moist dermatitis), which happens because theyre in pain. Usually due to tooth overgrowth (incisors AND molars hyposodont), where the maxillary teeth overgrow laterally, and the mandibular teeth overgrow medially, and it entraps the tongue.
main contender for causing penumonia in the gpig?Streptococcus pneumoniae
viral pneumonia causes what problem?Necrotizing bronchopneumonia
**Cervical Lymphadenitis--> caused by what? dx and tx?Usually there is some sort of trauma to the oral mucosa (rough forage, malocclusion), or stress. At this point Streptococcus zooepidemicus (or S. moniliformis but this was less emphasized) sets in and soon there are Pus filled ventral cervical masses. septicemia and bronchopenumonia are possible. DX: culture sensitivity/cytology, TX: surgical excision or lance & drain, antibiotic therapy, supportive care...Correct underlying cause!
**which mite affects gpigs? CSs, important things to know? TX?Trixacarus caviae is a ZOONOTIC!!!! mite which causes Intense pruritus, excoriation of back and shoulders, alopecia. It will be so puritic it will look like it is having seizures. recc tx is a LIME SULFUR DIP because some are resistant to ivermectin.
explain what is happening in Pregnancy Toxemia, what are the clinical signs? tx?occurs in Primiparous (first time pregnant), obese sows, during the final 2 weeks of pregnancy-- obesity and fasting are the predisposing factors. There will be Abrupt onset anorexia, quit drinking, 24 hours prostrate and dyspneic,there will be severe hypoglycemia, an enlarged fatty liver and empty stomach, and DIC. TX is usually unrewarding-- PREVENTION IS KEY! good quality diet to prevent obesity, and avoid stresses in late pregnancy
what causes Conjunctivitis in gpigs, and how do you tx it?Chlamydiophila caviae, NO tx, will spontaneously resolve in 2-3 weeks
Dermatophytosis--> age more affected? CS? DX? TX?more common in younger gpigs. Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis are main contenders---> ZOONOTIC!!!. you will see Pruritus, focal circular alopecia with crusting-- Face, forehead, ears progress to over the back and down the limbs. DX with DTM (dermatophyte test medium, a culture), TX: antifungals