Exotics- Birds 2

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-09-08 16:59


Question Answer
Reportable and zoonoticChlamydiophila psittaci, E. Coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Proteus, Salmonella, Citrobacter, Aeromonas, Campylobacter, Ringworm, Giardia and other protozoal parasites
Chlamydiophila psittaci- is it zoonotic? is it reportable?BOTH
Chlamydiophila psittaci-- where does it go in the body?intracellulary (CHLAM inside the cell)
Chlamydiophila psittaci--> clinical signs?URT, depression, anorexia, PU, biliverdinuria, dehydration, dyspnea, ~hepatomegaly (CHLAMS cant breathe)
how do you dx Chlamydiophila psittaci?Antigen/Ab testing (including elementary body agglutination, complement fixation, ELISA, IFA, PCR), culture (often difficult) of ocular/liver/URT/blood
how do you tx Chlamydiophila psittaci?DOXYCYCLINE!!! (a doxy has the clap) injectable formulation must be specific for IM inj. Oral tx most commonly used. A 45 day regimen is recommended
how do you dx for mycobacterium?ACID FAST STAIN. (and if you have TB in your crypts, you might as well take some acid)
when do you see candida albicans? where?(yeast) immunosuppressed. MOUTH. (think thrush)
Malassezia causes what?dermatitis (just like itchy dog ears)
when do birds usually get aspergillus? HOW do they get it?IMMUNOCOMPROmiSED/ILL PTS. Inhaled spores-ubiquitous in environment (esp. warm/humid climates)
what are the clinical signs for aspergillus?URT/LRT, dyspnea, anorexia, wt. loss, weakness, secondary to other problems
how would you dx aspergillus? (tx?)MONOCYTOSIS (Tx: Itraconazole 5-10mg/kg PO q24-48h, nebulization with amph. B or terbinafine & saline daily, possible not long term cure (ganulomatous disease), sx removal) (ASPARAGUS GIVES YOU MONO)
Macrorhabdosis is what? happens when? avian gastric yeast. Immunocompromized pts.
atoxoplasma is a what, and how does it get around the body?(a toxic thing to have in blood) blood parasite, part of its life is in the monocytes and macrophages, and then it can travel anywhere in the body and then they have it for life (At the monocyte subsay system)
Feather picking? diarrhea? Think what?GIARDIA (fecal to check for it) (think of little horseshoe crab looking things all over their feathers and theyre tryin to pick them off)
Trichamoniasis has yellow plaques in the mouth...what else has this (so is a ddx)pox, and candida albicans
Cochlosoma is a what, and how do birds get it?flagellate parasite. Transmitted by asymptomatically infected society finches, often used as foster parents (fecal to find) (only rich people can afford chochlear implants)
Cryptosporidium-> what is this? where does this like to live? how do you dx?parasite which likes to live in mucosal cells (makes sense-- crypts full of mucus). you can find them on fecals and they are ACID FAST (remember if you have crypts full of TB, you might as well take some acid)
"big liver dz" is what?Atoxoplasma(aka Lankasterella) (remember this is a blood parasite that goes into monocytes and macrophages and moves everywhere) (one big liver from the mono railway is all it needs for ATOXIC dose)
Syngamus trachea is a what? aka? lives where? cs? dx?roundworm, aka gapeworm/redworm. lives in trachea so it causes Respiratory distress, gasping, coughing or sneezing, malaise, increased mortality, head shaking, sometimes will see “gaping”. can see eggs on feal float.
Capillaria is a what? what does this look like/where does it live?roundworm (think capalini pasta) GI, but also oropharynx and crop, causing white plaques
Cestodes (tapeworms)--> how do birds get these?usually ate a live food item (so usually carniverous birds)
Sternostoma tracheacolum is a what? where does it hang out? CS? dx?TRACHEAL MITE. live in Trachea and syrinx (not airsacs) so they cause wheezing, head shaking, gaping, dyspnea, voice change and cessation of singing. Low mortality. Tracheal illumination after wetting feathers allows visualization of “black spots” (mites) within the lumen, necropsy
Knemidokoptes pilae- what are these? CS?"scaly leg mites" hyperkeratotic lesions on feet/base of the beak. Pruritus is noted only by attentive owners. (can rub plant oils on legs to suffocate them out, along with some ivermectin)
what are the two Blood sucking mites?Dermanyssus gallinae (red mites), Ornithonyssus sylviarum (northern or fowl mite)
Dermanyssus gallinae (red mites)--> where do they live?actually live in nesting material and come out at night to feed (not the nyssus to attack at night!)
Ornithonyssus sylviarum (northern or fowl mite)--> where do they live?spend lifecycle on bird (I'd be ornary if i had mites on me all the time too)


Question Answer
too much vitamin C can cause what?iron stoage dz
iron storage dz happens why? CS? dx? tx?too much citrus and iron in diet. abdominal distention with hepatomegaly, loss of beak coloring. Bile acids and hypoproteinemia indicate a liver problem. Give water with tea (tannins) to bind up iron, supportive care, etc
what yummy fruit is toxic to birdsadvocado
which drugs are particularly toxic to birds?furans and metronidizoles
organophosphagtes cause what signs?CNS
Squamous Cell Carcinoma usually occurs where?Mucocutanous jxns of head, distal wing/phalanges, UP gland
where do papillomas like to hang out? how can you dx? tx?around the vent can use acetic acid (vinegar) and if it blanches you know its a papilloma. Sx removal often curative, but recurrence possible
where do Lymphoma/LSA like to be, in who?Retrobulbar in psittacine (esp. juvenile African Greys)
who usually gets lipomas?fat birds. esp budgies.
if you see a hemangiosarcoma, think what?usually benign, dont do anything
seeds are deficient in?Seeds deficient in Vitamin A and calcium, as well as most fatty acids
rough feathers, dry feet, beak is dry, pale around eye, tail is tattered, skin is flaking.. edge of beak is overgrown...sounds likeacute nutritional deficiency
chronic nutrtional imbalance looks likeObesity, wasting, Chronic hepatic damage. GI flora imbalance with diarrhea and abnormal gram stain
egg binding usually happens in bids with what kinda diet, and how old?seed diet and over 10yo
CS of egg bindingUpright position with wide based stance, fluffed, inappetant, space occupying mass in cloaca or coelom, lethargy, unable to defecate
dx and rx of egg binding?PE (palpation of egg), radiographs (if stable), Parenteral calcium, SQ fluids, heat supplementation, aspiration of egg, lubrication and manual removal of egg, +/- oxytocin
which airsac uusally ruptures?Most often cervicocephalic AS
what vx sq?POLYOMA (ventral keel SQ)
avian IO administration-- how? feel for notch on distal ulna, feel and go in. Distal Ulna > 500 g. Proximal Tibiotarsus < 500 g (easier to hit in er)
how DONT gyou give fluids in birds?no intracelomic
what shoudl you know about intubation?uncuffed tube
Figure Eight Bandage for?humeral and more proximal breaks. MUST exercise and ROM for this
which pain med is good for birds?butorphenol, bc they have more kappa receptors
when are the only times you use corticosteroids??shock/toxicity/nervous system compromise.
what kinda corticosteroid should you use? what shouldnt you do?useSHORT ACTING. DONT use topicals, and watch the CBC because the bird can get immunocompromised
if you need to work on upperairway, how can you intubate?airsac cannulation (L thoracic airsac)

Recent badges