Leucocytozoon--> which cell does it invade? what does it look like? what is the distribution? what is the vector?
**GROSSLY DISTORTS HOST CELL (zoo of weird shaped cells) invades immature RBC or WBC. worldwide distribution except for south/cental america and carbbean (no vectors there). Vector is Simuliid blackflies
leukocytozoon is fatal when/who?
Fatal infection reported in Psittacines, young (abberrent intermediate stages)
if you see a microfilaria?
serious fatal infxn (TOXIC to DEATH)
what serum stuff dont birds have?
no bilirubin (can try to look at bile acids)
what should you know about creatinine and BUN in birds?
useless- need to look at uric acid.
hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia , hypocalcemia hypoproteinemia in birds?
Young birds-high nestling mortality, fledgling morbidity. Adults may be asymptomatic carriers
CS of polyoma?
CS: lethargy, fluffed, delayed crop emptying, sudden death
describe carriers of polyoma
Many birds without CS will remain viremic and shed virus in their droppings (+/- feather dander and skin)→ become virus-negative (may still have Ab titer)
if budgies survive polyoma, what might happen to their feathers?
frech molt (lose primaries and secondary feathers)
if you see a budgie with a french molt...
POLYOMA (poly got no feathers, dnt want no crackers)
4 major things you should screen for?
polyoma, PBFD, chalmyidophila, pacheckos
INIB (intranuc inclusion bodies) (polly in the nuc.)
Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease (PBFD)--> what kinda virus?
circo (circle around their beak)
what are the clinical signs of Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease (PBFD)? (and what age are affected?)
chronic progressive disease in birds over 8-10 months of age-starts with lack of beak and down powder, then progresses to feather loss, abnormal pin feathers (constricted, clubbed, or stunted), abnormal mature feathers (blood in shaft), and eventual necrosis/fracture of distal beak and exposure of bone.... SECONDARY INFECTIONS HIGH
prognosis of PBFD?
Most birds die in 6-12 months, some live years
acute infection of PBFD happens in who? what happens?
Acute infection in nestling Cockatoos-regurgitation→ constricting annular feather bands → death
PBFD is common in which birds, how does it usually present?
Inf. common in lovebirds and Eclectus parrots, but many have no CS (love eclectic feather dzs)... also, Common in lories with a mortality rate of only ~30%
PBFD Often concurrent infection with..
histo finding with PBFD?
INTRACYTOPLASMIC IBs (bc circovirus is RNA) (remember polyoma is intraNUC bc DNA...polly in the nuc cage)
how contageous is PBFD? what's the mortality?
SUPER contageous, usually terminal
what should you know about birds positive for PBfd?
ALL positive birds are actively shedding virus whether they are showing signs or not.
Pacheco’s Disease (PD)--> what kinda virus?
herpes!!! (patchy herpes sores)
is pacheco's acute or chornic? how contageous? how is it transmitted? main CS?
ACUTE, HIGHLY CONTAGEOUS, transferred via secretions. Most common CS is sudden death. bright yellow urates with scant feces
bright green/yellow poop?
PACHECOS (patchy green and yellow colors)
pox (intracytoplasma IBs)
Proventricular Dilitation Disease (PDD)--> what kinda virus?
borna virus (BORNA THIS WAY-- with a dilated proventriculus)
PDD usually happens in who? what are the clinical signs?
psittacines, mostly african grey parrots. dilation (often massive) of proventriculus (forming a “J” shape and causing the ventriculus to be palpable)--> owner will say crop not emptying for several hrs
J-shape organ on rads and abnormal fecal with seeds in it is what dz?
Viscerotropic velogenic newcastle’s disease caused by what kinda virus?
paramyxo (pair-o mixed up Vs)
Viscerotropic velogenic newcastle’s disease (VVND) how contagoues? hows the morbidity? CSs?
in <60hrs, DEAD. AND HIGHLY INFECTIOUS. AND CROSSES SPECIES... Significant threat to the poultry industry worldwide
how does newcastle get transmitted?
resp aerosols (breathe in the castle air)
*Reportable and zoonotic viruses
Newcastle dz, Avian influenza, Eastern equine encephalitis, West nile virus
avian influenza is what virus?
orthomyxo (virus for flu...feel like i need orthotics when i have the flu)