Exotics - Avian Dz 5

drraythe's version from 2016-05-07 16:38

Viral Dzs Continued

Marek’s Dz

Question Answer
What virus czs Marek’s Dz (give both names for it)?Fowl Plague
Gallid Herpesvirus 2

New strains happen in the US all the time
T/F: Marek’s Dz is Herpesvirus - induced neoplastic dz of turkeys.FALSE
Marek’s Dz virus can induce neoplastic lesions, but only in chickens not turkeys
Match the serotype of Marek’s Dz virus to the description.
(1) Serotype I       (a) non-virulent strains
(2) Serotype II      (b) nonpathogenic Turkey Herpes virus
(3) Serotype III     (c) virulent & less virulent strains
(1) c
(2) a
(3) b
Chickens w/ Marek’s Dz usually do not show signs until after _ wks of age?8 wks
Where does replication & release of infective MDV occur?Replicates in & is released from the epithelium of the feather follicle
T/F: Marek’s Dz virus is shed in feces.FALSE
Marek’s Dz virus is shed in dander
How is Marek’s Dz xmitted?Xmitted thru the respiratory route
T/F: Any tissue can be affected by Marek’s Dz.TRUE
What type of CS of Marek’s Dz may be seen?CS of Marek’s Dz vary depending on which nerves & organs are involved.
Signs may incld:
Respiratory distress
***Marek’s Dz czs what gross lesions in the central & peripheral nervous systems?There are no gross lesions in the CNS
**Peripheral nerves lose cross striations** & become grey or yellow & dull
What visceral lesions are czd by Marek’s Dz? They are more common in the (acute, classical, carrier) form.Grey lymphoid tumors in the viscera
This is more common in the acute form
What microscopic changes occur in the brain & spinal cord in chickens w/ Marek’s Dz?Perivascular cuffing & a small area of cellular infiltration w/ pleomorphic mononuclear cells in the spinal cord & ganglia
**How is histopathology used to differentiate Marek’s Dz from Leukosis?Infiltration of pleomorphic cells made up of various stages of lymphocytes & plasma cells. Leukosis czs proliferation of lymphoblasts only
***At what age are chickens Vxd against Marek’s Dz? How long does immunity last?Chickens should be Vxd at 1 day
Immunity is lifelong
T/F: Chicks must be isolated for 7-10 days after Vxn to prevent infxn.TRUE


Question Answer
What family of viruses does the Leukosis/Sarcoma group belong to?The Leukosis/Sarcoma group of viruses is in the Retroviridae family
Leukosis is seen primarily in (pet birds, commercial flocks).Leukosis is mostly seen in pet birds
Where does the Leukosis virus multiply? What bacteria also replicates here?Replicates in the albumin secreting glands of the oviduct
Mycoplasma also replicates in the albumin secreting gland of the oviduct
How is Leukosis xmitted (two ways)?Vertically when the egg is formed
Horizontally from infected feces & saliva
Under what circumstances do infected birds shed virus in saliva &/or feces?Only birds infected by vertical xmission will shed the virus
A bird that is infected through feces or saliva will not be infective to other birds
T/F: Like Marek’s Dz, Leukosis may cz paralysis.FALSE
Leukosis does not cz paralysis
T/F: Tumors in the bursa & intestines are common in lymphoid Leukosis, but not Marek’s Dz.TRUE
Marek’s Dz czs tumors all over, but rarely in the bursa & intestines
Myelocytomatosis czs tumors in birds of what age? It occurs mostly in (layers, broilers, breeders).Becoming more common in broilers & broiler breeders <2-3 wks old
What czs Myelocytomatosis (incld subgroup)?Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J (ALV-J)
Describe the appearance of tumors czd by Myelocytomatosis.Dull, yellow-white, soft & friable & diffuse or nodular
How is Dx of Myelocytomatosis usually made?Tumors in young birds
Serology (ELISA)
PCR feather pulp

Avian Influenza

Question Answer
*Most cases of Avian Influenza are seen in what spp.? What other birds are susceptible?Main target is Turkeys (& chickens to a lesser degree)
Virtually any spp. of bird is susceptible
Avian Influenza is in the family ____ & is czd by a Type _________ Influenza Virus.Orthomyxovirus Type A Influenza Virus
**Where is the reservoir for Avian Influenza?Domestic & wild waterfowl are the reservoir
Migratory birds xmit the virus
Fomites/direct contact
When Avian Influenza is characterized by a sudden onset, short course of dz & ↑ mortality, it is known by what name?Acute onset of Avian Influenza w/ ↑ mortality is termed Fowl Plague
This is the HPAI strain
What CS are czd by Avian Influenza?CS vary greatly:
Mild depression
Drop in egg production
Respiratory signs (coughing, sneezing, rales, rattles)
Nervous signs (Torticollis, Opisthotonus w/ inability to stand)
Ocular involvement (lacrimation)
***Compare dz progression of HPAI vs MPAI?HAPI = Neuro signs 1st, then resp signs
MPAI = Resp signs
***What type of lesion is czd by Avian Influenza? What do the liver & spleen look like in HPAI?Vascular lesions consisting of congestion, edema & hemorrhage
Liver & spleen have hemorrhagic necrotic foci
Hemorrhages in pericardium, pectoral muscles and proventriculus/gizzard & intestine

+/- necrosis & hemorrhage on heart, lung, liver, kidney & brain
***What is considered the classical lesion of Fowl Plague (HPAI)?Ulceration of combs is prominent in Fowl Plague
Edema in the head & feet
Erythema of the shanks
***What type of lesion is czd by MPAI?Catarrhal/Fibrinous exudate in resp tract
Oviduct/ovary hemmorhage
What is required for Dx of Avian Influenza in the start of an outbreak?Viral isolation is required to confirm Avian Influenza in the initial stages of an outbreak
Can also do serology: HA, HI (to differentiate from NCV), ELISA, AGPT
***What action must be taken if Avian Influenza is suspected?Avian Influenza is a **NOTAFIABLE**dz
Quarantine controls should be placed on imports of domestic poultry or exotic birds & infected flocks should be slaughtered
***How can you attempt to control/prevent Avian Influenza?Immeadiate control:
Quarantine farm
HPAI: Government controlled eradication (depopulate flock), disposal & clean-up
MPAI: Inactivated vaccines are recommended, Biosecurity to prevent spread

Strict biosecurity
Prevent contact btwn susceptible & infected birds
Wild birds are a major source of infxn!
Swine can also xmit the virus, do not how pigs near birds!

Arbovirus of birds

Question Answer
What do Eastern Equine Encephalitis, Western Equine Encephalitis & Highland J have in common (besides being arthropod borne)?EEE, WEE & Highland J are all Togaviriuses
What family are West Nile Virus & Israel Turkey Meningoencephalitis Virus in?Flaviviridae family
***T/F: Eastern & Western Equine Encephalitis & West Nile Virus are zoonotic.TRUE
They are a Public Health risk!
Zoonotic & Reportable!
In what region of the U.S. are outbreaks of Avian EEE most common?Upper mid-west & the east coast
***How is EEE transmitted (2 ways)?By mosquitoes or by cannibalism of infected birds (natural bird behavior)
Eastern Equine Encephalitis primarily affects what avian spp.?Pheasants are particularly susceptible
Outbreaks have been reported in many other spp.
T/F: Birds have little role in epizootiology of EEE bc they have a ↓ virus titer during viremia.FALSE
Birds have ↑ viral titer during viremia & may contribute greatly to spread of dz
***What are the possible CS of Eastern Equine Encephalitis? What are the gross lesions?Many birds do not show any signs of infxn w/ EEE
Others have signs of CNS involvement:
Encephalitis (ataxia, tremors, circling)
There are no gross lesions
Asymptomatic birds become carriers
How is Dx of EEE confirmed?Viral isolation & identification
***What methods of prevention for Eastern Equine Encephalitis are used?Reportable
Equine Vxs may be used in birds at 1/10 the dose
Control mosquito population
***T/F: West Nile Virus is transmitted by mosquitoes & directly from animal to animal.FALSE
West Nile is only xmitted by mosquitoes
Why are mammals considered “dead-end” carriers of West Nile?Only birds develop a ↑ enough titer to xmit WNV to mosquitoes
Mammals do not xmit the dz
West Nile is highly fatal in what 3 avian spp.?Crows
Blue jays
T/F: West Nile is a reportable dz.TRUE

Fungal dzs


Question Answer
Aspergillosis is known by what other name in birds? How is it xmitted?Brooder Pneumonia
Direct xmission (Breathe in spores, contaminated eggs in hatchery)
***CS of Aspergillosis appear in chicks up to _ wks of age.Up to 3 wks of age (YOUNG CHICKS ONLY)
What are the 2 types of Aspergillosis infxns?Localized to the respiratory system
Generalized infxn
***How do respiratory signs of Aspergillosis differ from other respiratory dzs?There are no respiratory sounds associated w/ Aspergillosis, only rapid breathing & gasping through open beaks
(other CS are thirst, fever, sleepiness, serous excretion from eyes & nares)
What CS occur in turkey poults, that don’t occur in chickens?Turkeys may show nervous signs in addition to respiratory signs
***Where are lesions found in localized infexns? Generalized infxns? What do they look like?Lesions: Small nodules w/ a yellow caseous center
Localized: Confined to resp tract, especially in the air sacs
Generalized: Extension of infxn into the thoracic & abdominal cavities
Describe the appearance of fungi in the air passages.The air passages may become blocked w/ caseous pus
Fungus looks like black or green fur w/in the pus
What lesions are unique to turkeys?Lesions in the cerebrum
What is the best way to Dx Aspergillosis?Demonstration of fungus in smears
What solution is used to prevent the spread of Aspergillosis?A 1:2000 copper sulfate solution to prevent spread
How should infected flocks be Txed?Tx of Aspergillosis is futile


Question Answer
Give 2 synonyms for Candidiasis.Thrush
Mycosis of Digestive Tract
Outbreaks of Candidiasis tend to occur under what conditions? Which spp is usually found?Candidiasis is associated w/ unsanitary conditions
Candida abicans
Candidiasis infxn is more common in young birds up to ___ wks of age.10 wks of age are susceptible
(often chicken, turkey, geese, pigeons, pheasants, quail, peacock)
Give the 4 most common locations of Candidiasis lesions. Describe these lesions.Turkish towel lesions are found in the crop, but the mouth & esophagus may also be affected & occasionally the proventriculus
Mucosa will be thickened & has white circular raised ulcers that can be peeled off
Name 2 Txs for Candidiasis.Tx is usually useless
For very valuable individual birds a 1:2000 copper sulfate solution or Mycostatin (Nystatin) may be useful


Question Answer
What spp. of birds has Cryptococcosis been reported in?Pigeons, Canaries, Cockatoos, Macaws & African Grey Parrots
Give 3 1⁰ locations of lesions czd by Cryptococcosis & describe the lesions.Myxomatous lesions in the:
Air sacs
How is Cryptococcosis Dxd?Cryptococcosis is Dxd by culture & identification
***T/F: Cryptococcosis is of public health importance.TRUE
Zoonotic, Cyrptococcus neoformans is especially seen in immunosuppressed people

This all I was able to get to. This is not the end of the material. Make sure you review the rest!!
If you want to make cards for the rest, contact me and I will add them to this for future students! (

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