Exotics - Avian Dz 3

drraythe's version from 2016-05-07 14:24

Clostridial Infxns (Only Botulism on final review)


Question Answer
T/F: Avian Clostridial infxns are common & lead to infxns in man & other animals.FALSE. Clostridial infxns are not common in birds & are not a sig. source of infxn in humans or other animals
Name 5 dzs or types of infxn that are czd by clostridia.Ulcerative Enteritis
Necrotic Enteritis
Gangrenous Dermatitis
Yolk Sac Infxn

Ulcerative Enteritis (Quail Dz)

Question Answer
What spp. are susceptible to Ulcerative Enteritis?Quail are most susceptible, but it can affect other avian spp., less severe tho
What is the common name for Ulcerative Enteritis?Quail Dz
What czs Quail Dz (Ulcerative Enteritis)?C. colinum
T/F: Ulcerative Enteritis is not zoonotic.TRUE
What are the CS of Acute Quail Dz?Ulcerative Enteritis usually has an acute onset in quails, resulting in 100% mortality, w/o CS.
Acute onset in chicken = Suddent death w/o CS
- may see characteristic droppings are streaked w/ urates surrounded by a watery ring
Chronic CS = Muscle atrophy, Depression, Ruffled feathers
What are the 3 sites of gross lesions czd by C. colinum? Describe the lesions.Ulcers & necrosis in the intestine & ceca +/- large necrotic diphtheritic patches
Liver = small pale yellow or grey necrotic lesions (pinpoint to several cms)

Spleen = enlarged, congested, +/- hemorrhage
What is the 1⁰ DDx for Quail Dz?Coccidiosis
Hemorrhagic Syndrome
Inclusion Body Hepatitis
Note: Necrotic Enteritis looks similar, but doesn’t infect quail

Necrotic Enteritis

Question Answer
What czs Necrotic Enteritis?C. perfringens Type A or C
What avian spp. & age are susceptible to Clostridium perfringens?Necrotic Enteritis occurs in broilers 4-8 wks old & has been reported in ostriches & psittacines
What are the CS of Necrotic Enteritis?Gangrenous dermatitis
Describe the gross lesions czd by C. perfringens.Necrosis of skin and deeper tissues of thighs, breast, lumber region, wing tips, wattles & feet
Underlying muscles show hemorrhagic necrosis w/ stinky gas
Liver is usually swollen, greenish in color +/- necrotic areas
Kidney and other visceral organs may show petechial hemorrhages & septicemic changes
What is the DDx for Necrotic Enteritis?Coccidiosis looks just like Necrotic Enteritis but is seldom as acute or severe
Ulcerative Enteritis is usually more focal & lesions are in the ileum, ceca or rectum


Question Answer
What are the common names for Botulism in birds?AKA: Limber Neck or Western Duck Sickness
What czs Botulism?Clostridium botulinum Type C (sometimes B & E)
(Human Botulism = A, B, E)
How is Botulism acquired?By ingesting maggots or other insects that feed on rotting carcasses containing Botulism toxin
(also present in mud & decaying vegetation)
Serious outbreaks of Botulism are generally limited to what type of birds?Waterfowl
What is toxicoinfectious Botulism?When broilers get an actual C. Botulinum infxn & the toxins produced w/in the intestine are absorbed systemtically
***What are the CS & lesions associated w/ Botulism?Paralysis w/ NO gross or histological changes (Birds usually die in a come from resp paralysis)
Occasionally incoordination is seen before coma
How is Dx of Botulism confirmed?Demonstrate toxin by injecting a mouse w/ the serum
Is there a Tx for Botulism?YES!
Admin of antitoxin!

Infectious Coryza

Question Answer
What czs fowl (infectious) Coryza?Avibacterium paragallinarum
T/F: Infectious Coryza is of considerable importance in the U.S.TRUE
***What is the natural host of Avibacterium paragallinarum?Chickens
(Pheasants may also be susceptible)
What is the source of A. paragallinarum infxn?Chronic or healthy carrier birds are the source of infxn
What CS characterize Infectious Coryza?Rapid spreading!
↑ morbidity & ↓ mortality
Chickens have serous or mucoid nasal discharge
Facial edema
***What gross lesions are seen w/ Infectious Coryza?Inflamed nasal passages & sinuses w/ edema of the face
**Swollen infra-orbital sinuses** may be so swollen that the eyes close
Wattles may have caseous necrosis
(Foul oder in chronic dz)
What type of history would suggest Fowl Coryza? What specimen is cultured for a definitive Dx?A history of rapidly developing respiratory dz is suggestive of Fowl Coryza
Infraorbital sinus should be swabbed & cultured to get a definitive Dx
Name 2 other dzs that may be confused w/ Infectious Coryza.Chronic Respiratory Dz (CRD) czd by Mycoplasma gallisepticum & Chronic Fowl Cholera (czd by Pasteurella multocida) are DDx for Infectious Coryza
Fowl Pox & vitamin A def. may also cz similar lesions
T/F: Sulfonamides & ABx can reduce severity of infxn & eliminate the carrier state.FALSE
ABx reduce severity but no drug is bactericidal for Hemophilus paragallinarum
Outbreaks recur unless the flock is depopulated
How should outbreaks of Fowl Coryza be controlled?Depopulate the flock
How effective is the Vx that’s available?Not very effective


Question Answer
Mycobacterium avium normally only czs serious dz in what 2 spp. of mammals?Rabbits & pigs are susceptible to serious dz
What spp. of Mycobacterium is more common in captive birds? What spp. is highly isolated from immunocompromised humans?Mycobacterium tuberculosis is found in captive birds bc of their close contact w/ humans. Serious problem in zoological gardens!
Mycobacterium avium has been identified in many immunocompromised humans
Are the CS of Tuberculosis are more common in older, younger bird?.Most often found in older birds bc of the slow dz progression
Ulcerative lesions in the intestine → chronic diarrhea becomes main source of dz
What are the CS of Mycobacteriosis?Progressive weight loss
Atrophy of breast & pectoral muscles → 'Knifed Keel'
Anemia in the comb & wattles
Dry skin over the tibia (shank)
Paralysis if lesions are in bone marrow → jerky movements
Chickens get chronic diarrhea
Name 4 locations that lesions of Tuberculosis are most commonly found. What do the lesions look like?Liver
Intestines → lesions ulcerate
Bone marrow
- Nodules are irregular, grayish yellow & vary in size
- Cut surface may contain small yellow caseous foci
Name 2 measures of prevention & control of Mycobacteriosis.Best to depopulate bc Tx is not economical & a single bird can contaminate the entire premises. Pigs shouldn’t be kept w/ or near chickens


Question Answer
Which genus of Chlamydia contains the spp. that affect birds?Chlamydophila = dz in birds, man & animals
Chlamydia = dz in man, swine & mice
What do Psittacosis & Ornithosis refer to?Psittacosis = humans & psittacines
Ornithosis = any other avian
***What spp. czs avian Chlamydiosis? Is it a public health concern?Chlamydophila psittaci
It's a HUGE public health concern!
Chlamydiosis is primarily of economic importance in what 3 avian spp.? What 2 spp. have less frequent incidence? What serves as the reservoir of infxn?Economic importance in turkeys, pigeons & ducks
Less frequent in chickens & geese
Wild birds are the reservoir
The virulent strains of Chlamydophila psittaci are isolated most often from ___ & the ↓ virulent strains are isolated from ____ & ___. Which strain czs infxn in man?The virulent strains are most often isolated from turkeys → cz dz in humans
Low-virulence strains are isolated from pigeons & ducks & cz slow progressive emidemics
***How is Chlamydia xmitted?**Horizontally! Shed thru feces**
+/- nasal discharge (especially pigeons, xmit from parent to nestling this way)
Xmission is by inhalation of contaminated dust
T/F: Finches, canaries & mynahs serve as reservoirs of Chlamydia.FALSE. These caged birds have highly fatal dz & do not serve as reservoirs bc they are dead
***What are the CS & lesions of Chlamydiosis in turkeys?CS of Turkeys w/ virulent strains:
Gelatinous yellow-green feces
+/- ↓ egg production (↓ virulent strains do not effect egg production)

**Lungs/Heart = congestion & fibrinous exudates in the pleural cavity
Liver = enlarged, discolored & coated w/ fibrin & possible necrotic foci
Spleen = enlarged
Rarely nasal gland infxn w/ swelling on the head**

What are the CS & lesions of Chlamydiosis in ducks/geese?Often fatal!
CS are:
Axaia (unbalanced gait)
Green watery feces
Serous or purulent oculonasal discharge

Lesions are similar to turkeys:
Fibrinous exudates in pleural cavity
Fibrin coating over liver
What are the CS & lesions of Chlamydiosis in psittacines?Cockatiels have Conjunctivitis
Others have CS that wax & wane:
Tail-bobbing (leg weakness)
Icterus (especially macaws)
+/- Torticollis & leg paralysis

Lesions are similar to turkeys:
Fibrinous exudates in pleural cavity
Fibrin coating over liver
What are the CS & lesions of Chlamydiosis in pigeons? AKA?AKA: Parrot Fever
Swollen eyelids
Resp Difficulty (Rattling sounds)
Large amts to Urates in feces
Anorexia & diarrhea in acute cases
Weakness & death in Chronic cases
(Some recover & become carriers)

Lesions are similar to turkeys:
Fibrinous exudates in pleural cavity
Fibrin coating over liver
What are the CS of Chlamydiosis in chickens?Chickens are relatively resistant, but they may get:
Air Saculitis
What is the best specimen to use for isolation of Chlamydia? What tissues is it cultured in?Fibrinous exudates are a good source for specimen isolation
It can be grown in human & mice cell cultures, chicken embryos, or mice inoculation
In what cell types is C. psittaci found? What stains are used?Mononuclear cells
Can be demonstrated under phase contrast or w/ Giemsa, Machiavillo, Gimenez, FAT stains
What is the Tx for Chlamydiosis?Tetracyclines for 2 wks can control the infxn
What methods of prevention & control are used?No Vxs!
Strict bio-security prevents spread
45 day quarantine period for Chlamydia in the U.S.


Question Answer
What are the 2 common names for Omphalitis?Navel Ill
Mushy Chick Dz
What is Omphalitis?Inflammation of the yolk sac, characterized by infected unhealed navels in young birds
Give CS of Omphalitis. (What is the behavior? What does the navel look like? What does the sternal subcutis look like? When does mortality begin? What is the outcome if birds survive?)Birds huddle around the heat
Depression & heads are droopy
Inflamed naval that fails to close
Green-yellow discoloration of the sternal subcutis
Mortality starts at hatching & can continue for 2 wks
Birds that survive will be stunted
What lesions are seen w/ Omphalitis?Yolk sac congested & not absorbed
Yolk sac contents become watery & greenish yellow & occasionally caseous
+/- Peritonitis
Name the top 3 czs of Omphalitis, in order. What are the other czs?TOP 3:
E. coli
Strep. fecalis

Staph. aureus
How can Omphalitis be prevented?Incubator sanitation
Maintenance of proper humidity & temp
Reduction of stress during transport

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