Exotics - Avian Dz 1

drraythe's version from 2016-05-07 17:25



Question Answer
What are the 2 non-motile members of the Salmonella genus that infect birds?S. pullorum
S. gallinarum
What 2 dz names are given to infxn w/ Salmonella pullorum?AKA: Bacillary White Diarrhea
AKA: Pullorum Dz
(Pull the White door open I'm gonna blow)
Infxn w/ Salmonella gallinarum is called what?Fowl Typhoid (Ty's Gal is Fowl)
What does Paratyphoid refer to?Paratyphoid is the name for any dz czd by a motile species of Salmonella
What is the most common Salmonella serotype in turkeys?Salmonella arizonae is the most common serotype in turkeys

Pullorum & Fowl Typhoid

Question Answer
T/F: Pullorum & Fowl Typhoid are zoonotic?FALSE
S. gallinarum & S. pullorum are not zoonotic
T/F: Pullorum Dz & Fowl Typhoid are of major economic significance in commercial poultry in the US?FALSE
Pullorum Dz & Fowl Typhoid have been reduced to very ↓ incidence in the U.S.
What are the natural hosts of S. pullorum & S. gallinarum?Chickens & turkeys are the natural hosts of S. pullorum & S. gallinarum, but other species can be infected
***What is the 1⁰ method of xmitting S. pullorum & S. gallinarum? How else does infxn occur?Direct vertical xmission (infxn of the egg from the ovary) Birds may also become infected horizontally by contact w/ a contaminated environment
What is the 1⁰ CS of Pullorum Dz & Fowl Typhoid in hatcheries?Large number of dead or piped embryos & ↑ chick mortality starting by the 1st day in the brooder house
How does the duration of the mortality period differ btwn Fowl Typhoid & Pullorum Dz?Mortality continues thru adulthood in S. gallinarum infxns
Mortality stops by 2 wks of age in S. pullorum infxns
When does mortality start in brooder houses (if Pullorum or Typhoid is present)? When is the average peak mortality?Mortality starts on the 1st or 2nd day in the brooder house & peaks at 1 week
***In surviving chicks, what is the most important CS of Pullorum?**White pasting around the vent (chalky whitish-brown excrea)**
Other signs incld:
Swollen hock joints
Nervous signs (Incoordination)
Resp. distress
What are the CS of Pullorum & Fowl Typhoid in adult chickens?There will be ↓ egg production in carriers, but generally there are no CS in adults, even w/ acute infxn
What are the 4 most important pathologic signs/lesions associated w/ Pullorum & Fowl Typhoid in chicks. Describe additional variable pathological signs in chicks.There will be piped embryos & chicks w/ Fowl Typhoid will have Omphalitis (with a retained yolk sac) & enlarged liver & spleen w/ necrotic foci
Sometimes there is:
Abscesses in the lungs
Necrotic foci in the heart (Myocarditis)
Swelling of the hock joint w/ yellow viscous fluid
Congested kidneys w/ ureters filled w/ white chalky urates
Where are lesions of Pullorum & Fowl Typhoid found in adult carriers?Adult carriers of S. pullorum & S. gallinarum will have misshapen or pedunculated ovules that contain oily & caseous material enclosed in a thickened capsule
Only hens are carriers, as infxn localizes in the ovaries
T/F: Misshapen or pedunculated ovules containing caseous material are unique lesions to Salmonella.TRUE
What lesions are seen in adult birds that die of acute Pullorum or Fowl Typhoid?Adult birds w/ acute Pullorum or Fowl Typhoid may have:
Enlarged liver w/ necrotic foci (Bronzed color in sunlight)
Spleen & kidneys are swollen & congested
How is Dx of Pullorum & Fowl Typhoid made? Preferred tissue sample?Hx, symptoms & lesions provide presumptive Dx, but complete isolation is required for a definitive Dx
For Chronic cases: Ovaries, Liver, Spleen, Bone marrow
For Acute cases: Liver!
T/F: Flocks can be Txd w/ ABx to eliminate Pullorum & Fowl Typhoid.FALSE
Sulfa drugs can ↓ mortality, but they won’t eliminate carriers, so the dz will remain in the flock
***What is the best method of prevention & control of Pullorum & Fowl Typhoid?Elimination of carriers is the best method of prevention & control!
(Test flock, cull reactors, repeat a month later, repeat once more. If reactors are found after 3 tests, eliminate the entire flock)
T/F: An attenuated Vx is available for reducing mortality czd by Pullorum Dz.FALSE
A live Vx is available for S. gallinarum (NOT S. pullorum) & its not available in U.S.
Which flocks should be vxd w/ S. gallinarum & at what age?Fowl Typhoid Vx should be given only to commercial layer flocks at 9-10 wks where dz is endemic
What are the DDx for Pullorum/Fowl Typhoid?Lungs = Fungus
Joints = Mycoplasma, Viral Arthritis, E. coli, mineral def.
Septicemia = Fowl Cholera, E. coli


Question Answer
Infxn of birds with motile Salmoella serotypes is calls? Where does it happen?Motile Salmonella serotypes cz Paratyphoid. Its enzootic in all parts of the world
T/F: Like Pullorum & Fowl Typhoid, Paratyphoid infxns are of little economic importanceFALSE
Paratyphoid is of economic significance bc it czs greater losses than Typhoid & Pullorum
**T/F: Like Pullorum & Fowl Typhoid, Paratyphoid infxns are zoonotic?FALSE
Paratyphoid infxns ARE zoonotic & are a serious public health risk
but Pullorum & Fowl Typhoid are NOT
***Is Paratyphoid zoonotic?YES
Where do motile Salmonella tend to localize?Intestinal tract
How is Paratyphoid xmitted? Incld host & bacterial species differences. Who are the main hosts?Paratyphoid is most commonly xmitted through the egg
Eggshell fecal contamination
Direct ovarian xmission occurs in Chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese & pigeons for most species of motile Salmonella
xmitted to humans via eggs, meat, poultry products

Domestic Animals
Wild Animals
What are the symptoms of Paratyphoid? Compare to Pullorum & Fowl Typhoid.Paratyphoid, like Pullorum czs:
↑ mortality for the 1st few wks
Large number of piped chicks
Chicks may be depressed & have watery diarrhea
Growing birds may have poor appetite, diarrhea & dehydration
- Like Pullorum & Typhoid, adults usually do not show CS
Describe the lesions of Paratyphoid & compare them to Fowl Typhoid & Pullorum Dz.Like Fowl Typhoid & Pullorum:
In chicks:
Omphalitis (common)
Hemorrhagic liver & spleen
Congested Kidneys

In adults w/ severe cases:
Congested liver & spleen
Necrotic Enteritis
-Unlike the non-motile Salmonella infxns, Paratyphoid infxns do NOT cz lesions in the ovaries
What information is essential when conducting serological testing for Paratyphoid infxns?Essential to know the serotype present & use appropriate antigens when conducting serological testing
T/F: Large scale serological testing & removal of reactors is a common, effective method of eliminating Paratyphoid infxn.FALSE
This would be impractical bc of frequent intermittent shedding &**doesn't help to identify carriers bc their Ab titers will be too low**
***What are the most important methods of prevention & control of Paratyphoid?Egg sanitation & fumigation is the most important method of prevention & control of Paratyphoid
General hatchery & flock sanitation
Competitive exclusion
Vx (S. enteritidis only)
A Vx is available for what motile species of Salmonella?S. enteritidis
but not for other motile Salmonella species
What are the CS of S. typhimurium in pet birds?Pet birds w/ S. typhimurium may have diarrhea & nervous signs


Question Answer
***T/F: Salmonella arizonae is only found in turkeysFALSE - TRICKED YOU!!
It is the **most common serotype in Turkeys**
but it is also found in:
How is Arizonosis xmitted?Salmonella arizonae can be xmitted by fecal contamination of eggs (horizontal) or possibly directly from the ovary (vertical) in turkeys (similar to motile Salmonella)
*What are the 3 most important CS of Arizonosis in poults & chicks (up to 4-6 wks)? What other signs may be present?Most Important:
Mortality (50% mortality that continues until 3-4wks old)
Nervous signs (torticollis)

May also have:
Diarrhea (with pasting around the vent)
Leg weakness
What is the most frequently seen lesion of Arizonosis? What other lesions are present?Exudate in the vitreous fluid of eyeballs is the most frequent
May also see:
Necrosis liver
Distended heart
List possible DDx for ArizonosisDDx: Newcastle Dz (Nervous signs) & Aspergillosis (Blindness)
What Txs are available for Arizonosis?Furazolidone

Used to reduce mortality & spread of infxn but does not eliminate carriers
T/F: There are no effective Vxs for S. arizonae.TRUE
Vx uses bacterins, but it's not very effective
Are there any differences in prevention & control of Arizonosis & other Paratyphoid infxns?There are no differences in control of Paratyphoid infxns!
Sanitation & egg fumigation are most important
Arizonosis summary?Salmonella arizonae is the most common serotype in Turkeys
Horizontal & Vertical xmission
Age group = 3-4 week old poults
CS = Blindness (exudate in the vitreous fluid of eyeballs) & Neuro (torticollis)
Has a vax (Bacterins)
Prevention = Egg Fumigation