Exotics - Amphibians

pbhati17's version from 2017-02-08 23:34


Question Answer
Caecilians (Apodans) → what are these amphibians like? What is their climate? What is an example of one?They are tropical species shaped like elongate cylinders. Eyes are reduced/absent, Limbs reduced or absent. Ex: Amphiuma
Urodeles → which amphibians fall into this group? What do they look like? What kinda climate do they live in? What is their larval form like?These are Salamanders & Newts! They live in temperate climates. They usually have gilled larval forms, which can be Neotenic (1⁰/preliminary form of breathing). NEWTs are the ones that breed in water
Anurans → which amphibians fall in this category? What do they look like/ what is their climate like?FROGS & TOADS! 4 limbs, tails typically absent & their range goes all the way to the artic circles
Are amphibians endo or ectotherms? What is their relationship w/ water?Ectotherms. Amphibians will live in water for at least PART of their lifecycle, which makes the proper depth & purity of the water very important.
What do you think about multispecies amphibian set ups?Not a good idea. Many are toxic & there is a ↑ prevalence of CANNIBALISM → look out for cannibalism, bc all adult amphibians are carnivores
***Why do you not want to keep amphibians w/ reptiles?Amphibians need SIGNIFICANTLY lower temperatures than reptiles. If you keep them together the amphi is gonna cook/desiccate
****Enviro considerations: TEMPS FOR TROPICAL AMPHIS? TEMPS FOR TEMPRATE AMPHIS? What other temps should you keep in mind?TROPICAL: 75-84F. TEMPERATE: 65-75F. Also keep in mind NIGHT & SEASONAL temperature drops.
****ENVIRO CONSIDERATIONS: HUMDITY (%) for TOPICAL AMPHIS? TEMPERATE?Tropical 70-95%. Temperate 60-90%
What kinda considerations should you think about for husbandry of amphibians?Are they Arboreal or Fossorial (trees or burrowing). Hide boxes? Size of enclosure?
Nutrition: ___ is key for amphi nutrition. **What should you know about adult amphi diets? How about tadpole diets?VARIETY IS KEY! ****FOR THE LOVE OF GOD, ALL ADULT AMPHIBIANS ARE CARNIVORES! Tadpoles may me carnivores, omnivores, or herbivores
What are 7 big nutritional dzs which can happen to amphibians?(1) Metabolic bone dz
(2) Renal or nutritional 2ndary hyperparathyroidism
(3) Obesity
(4) Thiamin Deficiency
(5) Gastric Impaction
(6) Gout
(7) Lipid Keratopathy
How bad is a fat amphibian?Obesity can be quickly fatal in these guys
What is gout & when do you usually see it in amphis?Uric acid buildup in joints & organs & surfaces of organs...sometimes you can see it on an xray. Usually w dehydration & metabolic probs
What czs Lipid Keratopathy to occur?Problem which can arise from a ↑ fat diet
SKIN → what is very important to know about amphi skin? (4). Bc of this what should you always do?Their skin in FRAGILE, TOXIC, ABSORPTIVE & THEY RESPIRE THROUGH IT!!!!!! bc of this you should def. use gloves while handling.
Why is air quality super important for an amphibian's enviro?They breathe through their skin!
Toxins → Bufadienalides. Who produces these, what kinda toxin is it?This is a cardiac glycoside toxin which is produced by Bufo alvarius (Colorado River Toad) & Bufo marinus (Marine toad)
Toxins → Neuromuscular Blockers. Who produces these?Poison dart frog (aka Dendrobatids), Mantellas (another kinda frog)
The musculoskeletal system of amphibians is adapted for _________ (movement), which means there are what anatomical modifications?Adapted for hopping, which means ribs are poorly developed & pelvic & pectoral girdles fused to vertebral column (why? bc how they move. need to be able to Rotate legs & push themselves forward, so need to be stable to do that)
What special nervous adaptation do amphibians have & what is it for?Lateral line system (good for sensing Elec in water, or sensing impulse/vibrations in the water)
How well can amphis hear?They have well developed ears
Can amphis smell?Yeah, they have a Jacobsen’s organ (vomeronasal organ)
What is an Unkin reflex? & why should you recognize it?This is a reflex to protect amphibian from predators. The amphi presents their toxic body part to hungry animals. (Like fire belly toad showing belly, showing poisonous tail, etc....). It is important to know this is not a neuro problem. They do it to make a predator leave the scene (give poisonous body part to predator)
How do much amphibians reproduce?EXTERNAL fertilization... gel-coated eggs
Which amphis are live-bearers?Caecilians (the snakey lookin babies like amphiuma)
***What is responsible for development of the amphi through life stages? (Metamorphosis)Morphogenesis controlled by the Thyroid
When do amphis breathe w/ gills?In their neotenic forms


Question Answer
What are an amphi's lungs like?They are simple, easily ruptured & they have no diaphragm! (Breathe by rib excursion)
Where does most respiration take place for an amphi?Up to 75% of exchange of gas in cutaneous
If you want to perform a PE & you want to do transillumination, what do you wanna use?Cool, intense fiberoptic source
What tools are useful for an amphi oral exam?Spatula or water proof paper, or rad film (tape edges) (make sure you are doing good handling)
Where are locations you can do a blood collection on an amphi? How much blood can you take?*Ventral abdominal vein
Femoral vein
Cardiac puncture
Also can use ventral tail vein. You can ALSO collect from the Lingual venous plexus w/ a capillary tube (external collection). Make sure you have a collection tool w/ lithium heparin. You can take 1% of their bodyweight
What are some ways/routes you can administer blood? (3) Things to note about the routes?Subcutaneous injxns, or you can do Cutaneous absorption!! (if need to put amphibian on ABx...just put it in the water & soak them (make a bath), OR just dilute injectable ABx & drip on their back & dry dock them for like 10min) or IM (*NOTE-inject in front half of body. bc there is a HEPATIC PORTAL SYSTEM)
HTRS: what's a super handy way to administer gas anesthetics to amphis?They have CUTANEOUS ABSORPTION! So anesthesia-moist paper towel down-put mask on it to make a chamber. Turn on iso. Breathe through skin so breathing iso. Also, can make iso & KY topical solution
If you want to get a fecal to check for parasites in an amphi, what should you do?Rectal wash
Swab or free catch (usually when you pick up amphis they pee or poop on you)
What parasite are we really concerned about in amphis that you WILL actually treat (& how would you treat?)Entamoeba ranarum....very pathogenic. Tx w/ Metronidazole
How can you see protozoa on a sample you collected?Need a fresh wet mount to see
You see a bunch of ciliated protozoans in your sample from an amphi. What must you know when you see this?Protozoa are a NORMAL part of their flora. Only Tx (Metronidazole) if CS or something ↑ly pathogenic. Very easy to kill w/ Anthelmintics!!
If the amphi has Trematodes/cestodes, how do you Tx?Praziquantel
If the amphi has Rhabdias (parasitic nematode ), how do you Tx?Ivermectin
If the amphi has filarid parasites, how do you Tx?Removal
When Tx amphis for parasites, keep what in mind?Very easy to kill w/ Anthelmintics!!
How do you check an amphi for ectoparasites? List 4 common ectoparasitesSKIN SCRAPE FOR DX! Can find mites, leeches, Copepods, or toad flies (Bufolucilia)
HTRS: best thing to use for skin scrape?Use coverslip instead of scalpel blade bc their skin is so thin & the coverslip works great
Skin Scrape → what are some fungi you should look out for in amphis? (4)Chromomycosis
Skin scrape → Phycomycosis. What is this & how do you Tx?Fungus. Tx: Removal, Antifungals, Husbandry
Skin scrape → Oodinium pillularis. What is this, how do you Tx?Parasite. Tx w/ metro & baths
What is Chytridiomycosis? (what's the thing that czs this?) How does it affect the amphi? Who does it affect? How do you Tx?Fungal infxn czd by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. It kills adult amphibians (doesnt seem to affect tadpoles). It might be anuran (frog/toad) specific? Appears to affect keratin layer...gets thick, abnormal, rough bumpy & yellow. When keratin doesnt shed how its supposed to? They CANT BREATHE))
Tx: Benzalkonium chloride, Itraconazole, Doxycycline
What is "Red Leg" aka? What usually czs this? How do you dx? Tx?Aka SEPTICEMA! Usually czd by Aeromonas Hydrophila, but its a multifactoral dz & other gram neg pathogens or Chlamydia psittaci can also contribute. DX: C/S, skin swab, sample femoral lymph space. Tx: amikacin, doxycycline
***What antiseptic should you never use in amphis & why?DONT USE BETADINE!!! It has iodine & the THYROID is what controls metamorphosis. This can jack up their lifecycle
What are 3 things you can use as anesthetics in amphis?(1) MS-222-Finquel
(2) Ketamine
(3) Isoflurane
Anesthetics → MS-222-Finquel → how can you admin?Bath, Intraceolomically
Anesthetics → Ketamine → how do you administer?Injxn
Anesthetics → Isoflurane-> how do you administer?Gel, water bath
HTRS: what about clove oil for anesthetic?Not a big fan of clove oil bc cant reverse & hard to monitor
How do you monitor anesthesia in an amphibian?Doppler, ECG, pulse oximetry
Why might you do radiographs on an amphi? What other imaging methods are there?GI FB, check for MBD, or fractures. ULTRASOUND can be used for everything that isnt those things. There is also transillumination, or Sx
What are 7 major toxins to amphis & how do you Tx?Chlorine
Heavy metals
Can Tx via freshwater bath
Sx principals → what kinda incision do you make into the abdomen? What kinda suture do you use? What kinda suture pattern do you use?PARAMEDIAN INCISION (remember, there is a ventral median vein)
Use noncapillary (monofilament) suture (PDS) & close skin in an everting pattern
What are some Sxs you can perform on amphis?Cystotomy (surgical incision into the urinary bladder)
Rectal prolapse

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