hasanahatesscience's version from 2016-01-28 17:54

Section 1

Question Answer
weather is the specific enviromental conditionsthat occur at a particular time and place
weather includestemp air pressure cloud cover and precipitation
weather forecasters use tools such asweather balloons satellites radar and computers to collect data
climateaverage weather conditions that occur over long period of time (30 years) includes average montly temp and precip
climate of an areadetermines types of vegetation that can grow and animals that can survive
latitudelines that run east and west and seperate the earth into north and south
.equatorthe line that determines north from south
greater the distance from the equatorthe colder it is
elevationdistance above sea level, the higher above sea level the colder it is
air that is moving along the ground can carrymoisture with it causing areas to get a lot of precip
in continental areaswind moves dry air keeping it hot in the summer and colder in the winter
water heats and cools slowerthan land
in spring the areas along the great lakesare cooler than the areas in land
in the fallthe water is warmer than the land
barriers like mountains force airup on one side causing warm moist conditions
other side of mountains is usually dry as the air falls back down
ocean currentsmass of water from polar region will decrease temp of land nearby
ocean currents warm waterfrom the tropics will increase the temp of land nearby
climate change a change in weather conditions in an area over a long period of time
changes in climatecan have both pos and neg impacts to society

Section 2

Question Answer
earths climate systemair land liquid water and ice, living things
climate systemis powered by the sun
the suns amount of energy that reaches earth depends on shape angle and movement of earth
suns rays hit at a perpendicular anglein some areas around the equator. this enables them to absorb max amount of energy
north and south poles recieve the suns rays at an angle and therefore are not as intense
the earths tilt ccreates seasons
as earth travels around the suneach area will recieve diff amounts of energy at diff times of the year. in summer earth is tilted towards sun
earth rotates on its axisturning away from the sun and then back again. at night earth turns away and temp decreases
some energy reaches the earth
majority of suns energy is reflected back into space by the atmosphere
materials such as ice snow and water reflect energy easily
materials such as rocks and dirtreflect less energy
conductionenergy can be transferred through liquid or gas
when the suns rays hit the surface of the earthconvection causes air and water to move

Section 3

Question Answer
the different levels of the atmosphere includetroposphere stratosphere mesosphere thermosphere exosphere
exosphere10 000 km
thermosphere690 km
mesosphere85km meteors
stratosphereozone absorbs high energy UV radiation from the Sun. preventing it from reaching Earths surface. STRATOSPHERIC OZONE PROTECTS HUMAN HEALTH, PLANTS AND OTHER ANIMALS50km weather balloons
troposphere6-20km mount everest
biosphereall living things
atmospherelayered mixture of gases
lithosphereearths crust includes solid rock, soil and minerals
hydrosphere includesincludes water in all three states
heat energy from the sun warms the airand the earth unequally
areas located near the equator are warmerand this causes the air in atmosphere to heat up
as air warms, it risesand moves over cooler
cold air sinks down and creates wind
hydrosphereenergy is added or removed when water changes state. cooling effect is water EVAPORTATING TO VAPOUR . heating is WATER condensing INTO LIQUID
water absorbs and storesthermal energy from sun
ice and snow reflectthe suns energy snow and ice cover keep arctic temps cold called ALBEDO EFFECT

Section 4

Question Answer
what are proxy recordsstores of information in tree rings, ice cores, fossils that can be measured to give clues about the climate in the past
ice cores can be cut into thin slices and air bubbles can be analyzed forgases that were in the atmosphere at the time. tests established how muchcCO2 methane and nitrous oxide that was in the air when the air bubble formed.
we know that during warm periods levels of greenhouse gases were higher
during cooler periods levels are low
tree rings and coral reefs add one layer of growth every year
rings are the thickest in yearswith good growing conditions
warm wet year will producea thick growth ring
a cold dry year will producea thin ring.
layers of sediment and layers of rock can give clues such asplant pollen or fossils to the climate at the time in that location
fossils and pollen grains can be usedto identify plants that grew thousands of years prev
scientists who study this are calledpaleontologists. can find out organism in that area.

Section 5

Question Answer
plate tectonics (continental drift)earths continenets have moved over the surface of the globe fora long per of time. one large super continent split up to form continents we see today
effects on climate when continents move includeocean currents and wind patterns change (HEAT TRANSFER AFFECTED) affects distribution of land mass, uplifting of new mountain ranges and weathering

Section 6

Question Answer
long term cycles in climateice ages and inter glacial periods
ice agetime in earths history when earth is colder and covered in ice
interglacial periodtime between ice ages when earth warms up
20000 years agoearth experienced last ice age. avg temp was 10c lower than today
ice sheets about3km thick covered canada. we are now in a INTERGLACIAL WARMING PERIOD
frequency of warm interglacial periodsfor the last 8000 years or more earths climate had cycled between both of these, occured about every 100000 years
earths orbit around sun changes in 3 main wayseccentricity (shape of orbit). Tilt (angle slowly decreasing. Precession of tilt (wobble)/direction of tilt changes

Section 7

Question Answer
short term variations in climatewere because of volcanic eruptions.
volcanic eruptionsspew rock dust and gases high into the atmosphere, ejected particles of sulfer dioxide reflected suns energy back into space.

Section 8

Question Answer
greenhouse gasesprevent the suns energy from being reflected back into space
natural greenhouse effectgreenhouse gases are needed to maintain temp of earth as it rotates from sun
suns energy passes thruatmosphere
most of suns energy is absorbed by the earth oceans and land and warms up
earths surface and atmosphere reflectsome of the solar energy
heated surfaces re emit infrared radiaition
infrared energy is reemitted by the greenhouse gases

Section 9

Question Answer
the earths heating system begins with light energyfrom the sun
production n burning of fossil fuels like coal n oil are the most significantcontributors to the production of greenhouse gases
co2 methane and nitrous oxide are the most significant greenhouse gasesthat we can control
it would NOT be better if we could ridof all the carbon dioxide
nitrogen and c02 are greenhouse gases
all of heat energy radiated from earth is not trappedin the earth's atmosphere by greenhouse gases
we do not call them greenhouse gasesbecause they are green, they trap heat
energy from sun is NOT absorbed by earthand reradiated as light energy
most of the atmosphere consists ofnitrogen and oxygen
global warming is nota good thing for the earth.
other greenhouse gases include nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons

Section 10

Question Answer
the greenhouse effect is composed ofcarbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapour, ozone
carbon dioxidecellular respiration, decay of plants, natural fires
methane CH4decaying material in wetland. released by animals-cows
nitrous oxide (n2o)anaerobic nitrification
water vapour (h20)evaporation of water, respiration in animals and plants
ozone O3produced naturally in upper atmosphere when UV reacts with oxygen gas

Section 11

Question Answer
greenhouse gasesprevent suns energy from being relfected back into space
nat greenhouse effectneeded to maintain temp of earth as earth rotates away from sun
without greenhouse gasesthe temp would drop dramatically at night

Section 12

Question Answer
1suns energy passes thru atmosphere
2most of suns energy is absorbed by earth ocean and land and WARMS Up
3earths surface and atmosphere reflect some of the solar energy
4heated surface re emit infrared radiation
5 infrared energy is re emitted by greenhouse gases

Section 13

Question Answer
anthropogenic green house effect is related to human activity. which LEADS to INCREASE in concentration of greenhouse gases
main sources OF ANTHROPOGENICindustry agriculture transportation and electric power generation
global warming is when there is a sustained increase in the worlds average surface temperature that leads to change in climate
natural causes of global warming greenhouse effect, change in amount of energy from sun-solar output and CHANGE in earths orbit
evidence in changing climate includerise in sea level, global temp rise, warming oceans, shrinking ice sheets, declining arctic sea ice, glacial retreat, extreme weather events- heat intense storms.

Section 14

Question Answer
impacts of climate change occurs when long termweather patterns are altered. can be enhanced through human activity
global warming is one measureof climate change (rise in avg global temp)
food harder to grow crops in tropical areas, reduction in food rising costs
drinkable waterdroughts will reduce water availability, shrinking glaciers will reduce amount of fresh water, flooding can cantaminate fresh water supply
infrastructure breakdownsevere weather can damage bridges, energy distribution, communication, transportation
diseasetropical disease can spread as climates become warmer
population displacementland becomes flooded or desert, population will move to survive.

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