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EXAM REVIEW CHEMISTRY

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hasanahatesscience's version from 2016-01-25 03:26

Section 1

Question Answer
ion is acharged atom that has either gained or lost electron. will gain or lose to end up with filled outer shell
if atom gains electrons the charge isnegative
if atom loses electrons charge is positive
cationsions with positive charge, same name as element
anionions with negative charge. add IDE To end of element name
ionic compoundscompounds are formed between metals and non metals. ionic bonds form when electrons are transferred between ions
ionic compounds generally formcrystals wil dissolve in water in their individual ions. hard brittle solids with high melting points
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
some metals can form more than one type of ionthese metals are called multivalent
polyatomic ions are compoundsthat have an ionic charge and a special name
memorize

Section 3

Question Answer
chemical formulas are made up of letters andnumbersletters are symbols of element and number tells us how many elements are present in compound
molecular compoundsare made up of neutral atoms. formed by atoms sharing electrons in covalent bond. OCCURS BETWEEN NON METALS
combining capacitynumber of covalent bonds an atom will need to have a filled valence shell
memorize

Section 4

Question Answer
chemical reactionsoccur between elements and compounds to produce new elements and compounds
a chemical reaction shows the reactants (starting material) on the leftthe products (ending materals) are on the right side. an arrow is used to seperate the two
word equationsuse the names of elements and compounds to represent chemical reaction. HYDROGEN + OXYGEN = hydrogen peroxide
chemical equationsuse chemical symbol to represent reactants and products also involves state of each substance (s, l , g, aq)
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Section 5

Question Answer
synthesis reactions A + B -> AB. adding things together. these reactions involve joining atoms to make a molecule or joining elements to make a compound
decompositionAB -> AC + B breaking apart. reactions involve breaking down a compound into individual atoms. reverse of synthesis.
single displacementA +BC > AC + B replacing an element. in some reactions elements reacts with a compound. in this case ONE ELEMENT REPLACES THE OTHER ELEMENT TO FORM A NEW COMPOUND.
double displacementAB + CD > AD + CB. elements in different compounds in the reactants replace each other to form new products
law of conservation of massstates that THERE IS NO CHANGE IN TOTAL MaSS OF SUBSTANCE BEFORE THE CHEMICAL REACTION COMPARED TO AFTER THE CHEMICAL REACTION.
during a chemical reactionthe atoms are NOT destroyed, but instead the atoms are rearranged.
the law of conservation of mass is obeyed in the following word expression that represents the process of photosynthesiswater + carbon dioxide > glucose + oxygen
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Section 6

Question Answer
an acid is a solution that has excess of H+ ions (hydrogen) the more H ions in a solution the more acidic it is. VINEGAR POP TOMATOS STOMACH ACID (hydrochloric acid)
properties of acidssour taste, conduct electricity, corrosive, react with metal
bases is asolution that has excess of OH- ions (HYDROXIDE IONS) another word for base is ALKALI. bases are substances that accept HYDROGEN IONS. SOAPS DETERGENTS CHALK BLOOD
properties of basesfeel slippery, taste bitter, corrosive, conduct electricity, do not react with metals
what is ph scalemeausure of how acidic or basic a solution is. ph scale ranges from 0 to 14
acidic solutions0-7. 0 is STRONG acid
basic solutions7-14. 14 is STRONG base
a solution with ph of 7is neutral (water)
neutralization reactionsreaction between an acid and a base is called a neutralization reaction. products of a neautralization reaction is a salt/ionic compound and water.
neutralization reactions are very common in lifesulferic acid and sodium hydroxide are useful industrial chemicals that are transported by trains trucks ships
heartburn is treated with antacids toneutralize the acid in the stomach
ph indicatorsph paper is colour coded to match ph levels. ph probes determine exact ph values
blue litmus paper paper turns RED in acid. STAYS BLUE In BASE
red litmus paperstays red in acid. turns blue in base.
naming binary acidscontain h and one other element (hydro + second element name + ic + acid)
naming oxyacids contain h and polyatomic ion.
naming basesmetal, add hydroxide (NaOH aq) SOME BASES CONTAIN CARBONATE IONS
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