What are cells? Cells are the smallest functional unit of life. A cell is capable of carrying out all of lifes essential functions
All living things are made up of cells
Cells come from pre-existing cells
Cells are the smallest unit of life
Cells contain hereditary information (DNA) which is passed on from cell to cell during cell division.
What is a Prokaryotic cell? this cell DOES NOT HAVE STRUCTURES surronded by the MEMBRANE. only FEW INTERNAL STRUCTURES
What is a Eukaryotic cell? CONTAINS ORGANELLES SURRONDED BY THE MEMBRANES. most LIVING organisms are MADE UP OF THESE CELLS
What is the cell membrane? the OUTER membrane of cell that CONTROLS MOVEMENT IN AND OUT of the cell. double LAYER composed of LIPDS, PROTEIN AND CHOLESTEROL. Selectively permeable, only certain materials can pass thru.
what is the cell wall? most commonly FOUND IN PLANT CELLS OR BACTERIA. Supports and protects cells
What is the nucleus? DIRECTS cell activities. SEPERATED FROM CYTOPLASM BY NUCLEAR MEMBRANE. this contains genetic material (DNA) centre of the cell, has chromosones
what is the nuclear membrane? surronds nucleus, made of TWO LAYERS, OPENINGS ALLOW material to enter and leave nucleus.
What are chromosones? in nucleus, contains dna, instructions for traits and characteristics
what is the nucleolus? small sphere inside nucleus. contains RNA to build proteins
what is cytoplasm? is a gel like mixture where all work is done. surronded by cell membrane.
what is smooth endoplasmic reticulum (E.R)? moves materials in cell. lacks Ribosomes, Produces LIPIDS
what is rough endoplasmic reticulum? moves material in cell. Ribosomes embedded in surface, PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
what are ribosomes? each cell contains these. this is INVOLVED IN THE PROCESS OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS. found on the ER, floating throughout the cell
what is the mitochondria Produces energy through CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Breaks down FAT and CARBS. The power house of the cell. Creates ATP for cellular function. Only works in presence of Oxygen/nutrients.
Golgi bodies? protein packaging plant. MOVES MATERIALS WITHIN CELL AND OUT OF THE CELL
Lysosome? Digestive 'plant" for PROTEINS FAT AND CARBS. transports undigested material to CELL MEMBRANE for removal
Vacuoles? membrane. Bound sacs FOR STORAGE, DIGESTION and WASTE REMOVAL. contains water solution. helps plant maintain shape
chloroplast? found in PLANT CELLS and NEVER in ANIMAL CELLS. has GREEN CHLOROPHYLL. photosynthesis takes place.
Centrioles? only found in ANIMAL CELLS and some plant cells. key role in cell division. (mitosis) only PRESENT during CELL DIVISION.
the cell membrane will act as a barrier to only allow particles of a certain size to pass through. allows small uncharged molecules to pass through it, but not larger or charged molecules.
what is diffussion? movement of particles from an area of HIGH concentration to an area of LOW concentration across the cell membrane.
what is diffusion in cells? Oxygen diffuses from our blood into our cells. Carbon Dioxide diffuses our cells into our blood
what is osmosis? the movement of water from an area of high concentration, to an area of low concentration across a semi-permeable membrane.
what is cell division? every cell in your body originated from a single cell through this process the numbers are increased
what is cell division needed for growth, repair and replace cells that are damaged and to reproduce (bacteria)
Asexual reproduction this form of reproduction ensures that all new cells formed (daughter cells) are exactly the same as the original cell (parent cell) GENETIC CONTINUITY
Sexual reproduction when TWO GENETICALLY DIFFERENT CELLS UNITE TO FORM ONE cell. The newly formed cell is genetically different from either parent cell. GENETIC VARIATION.
Cell cycle all cells go through a cycle of dividing and not dividing. The dividing phase is called Mitosis. the Non dividing phase is called Interphase. Cell spends most time in interphase,
interphase has 3 stages
interphase g1 cell grows and carries out regular functions.
interphase synthesis DNA (chromosones) replicate
interphase g2 cell grows and prepares for mitosis.
Mitosis is the process by which new body cell are produced for GROWTH and REPLACING DAMAGED OR OLD CELLS. form of a sexual reproduction.
the Four stages of mitosis prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Prophase chromosones get short and thick. nuclear membrane disappers. spindle fibres form between centrioles.
Metaphase chromosones line up in the middle of the cell. each centromere attaches to a spindle fibre.
Anaphase chromosones DIVIDE and MOVE TO opposite sides of the cell
Telephase NUCLEAR MEMBRANE REFORMS AROUND EACH NEW SET OF CHROMOSONES,
cytokinesis cytoplasm and organelles SPLIT to form TWO DISTINCT CELLS.
mutation is when permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene. causes changes in the way cell behaves
inherited means that if a parent has a mutation in his or her dna, mutation is passed on to his or her children. cannot change
acquired this happens when enviromental agents damage dna, when mistakes occur when a cell copies its dna prior to cell division
Cancer is a group of disorders that cause cells to escape normal controls on cell division.
cancer cells divide more frequently
cancer cells are not inhibited by contact with other cells, and can form tumors.
cancer cells can invade other tissues, a process called metastasis
benign tumours do not spread to other cells.
malignant spreads to other areas of the body
Control of the Cell Cycle mechanisms for controlling progress through the cell cycle: check points, length of telomeres and chemical signals from within and outside the cell.
cause: mutation in gene that usually slows the cell cycle effect: rate of cell division is accelerated
cause: failure to pause for DNA effect: Faulty DNA leads to unregulated cell growth
cause: loss of control over telomere length effect: cancer cells have TELOMERASE, an enzyme that ELONGATES TELOMERES. cells continue to divide after 50 mitoses.
when area of body appears to have cancerous cells, a biopsy will be done to identify cell type
chemotherapy is when the use of powerful chemicals kills fast growing cells in the body. can be used to treat many types of cancer. side effects; nausea, vomiting, joint pain, loss of appetite, hair loss and fatigue. long term side effects: damage to lung tissue, heart problems and nerve damage
radiation therapy repetitive treatmeant, uses HIGH DOSES OF RADIATION TO DESTROY CANCER CELLS. do NOT HAVE TIME TO REPAIR THEMSELVES SO THEY DIE
biophotonics new treatment which uses light activated drugs to detect and destroy cancerous cells. treatment has less side effects than radtiation and chemo
surgery physical removal of cancerous tissue in body. usually combined with chemo or radiation to ensure the removal of cancer cells
red blood cells carries oxygen in the blood, contains hemoglobin, also carbon dioxide. cells are smooth and can pass thru blood vessels
skin cells covers the outside of body to protect cells inside, to reduce water loss. layers of skin fit together tightly
bone cells collect calcium from food, allow growth and repair of bones. build up bone around themselves, creates bodys skeleton
muscle cells can contract, which makes fibres shorter and causes bones to move. arranged in bundles, called muscle fibres.
sperm cells able to move indepently, carrys dna from male parent to join egg cell (female parent)
fat cells how the cell stores chemical energy. has large vacuole to store fat molecules.
white blood cells can move like amoeba to engulf bacteria, fights infection. no regular structure
nerve cells conducts electrical impulses to coordinate body activity. long thin branches.
what are stem cells? unspecialized cells that renew themselves through cell division
stem cells begin begin as blank cells without specific tasks, have ability to become specialized.
embryonic stem cells derived from derived from 3-5 days old, BLASTOCYST. cells produce all specialized cells of the body
adult stem cells are specialized cells found found in a tissue or organ that can produce more specialized cells. found in limited areas of the body
embryonic stem cells are fascinating bc they can make diff types of cells in the bdy. called PLURIPOTENT
adult stem cells are MULTIPOTENT, because they can make multiple types of specialized cells, but not all the kinds of cells in the body
digestive organ TAKE IN FOOD, BREAKS IT DOWN, ABSORBS THE NUTRIENTS AND ELIMINATE WASTE
mouth mechanical (teeth) and chemical (enzymes) break down of food
esphosgus connects mouth to the stomach, food is squeezed down the tube by smooth muscle contractions called PERISTALSiS
stomach main organ of digestion performs 3 tasks. 1)mechanical breakdown of food by muscles. 2)chemical breakdown of food, acid and mucus is released from cells into stomach. 3)food storage`
small intestine its small bc small diameter. location where nutrients are absorbed by the circulatory system. LONGEST PART OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
large intestine much shorter and thicker than the small intestine. water is absorbed into the blood. remaining material is eliminated from the body through ANUS
salivary glands release enzymes into mouth that helps to break down food into smaller nutrients, three pairs
liver produces BILES which is STORED IN GULLBLADDER, bile BREAKS DOWN FATS
pancreas produces INSULIN which HELPS REGULATE BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS. releases MANY ENZYMES WHICH BREAKDOWN FATS PROTEINS AND CARBS
what is the function of the respiratory system? `ensure that oxygen gas can enter each cell in the organism. and CARBON DIOXIDE can leave EACH CELL
a respiratory system must provide large enough surface area of GAS EXCHANGE. and PROVIDE A MOIST ENVIROMENT
what are the components of a specialized systems BREATHING, EXTERNAL RESPIRATION, INTERNAL RESPIRATION, CELLULAR RESPIRATION
what is breathing/ventilation process of which oxygen is taken in from atmosphere and carbon dioxide is RELEASED
what is external respiration exchange of gases between air sacs and blood
what is internal respiration exchange of gases between blood and cells
cellular respiration breakdown of glucose in presence of oxygen
upper. nose preferred entrance for air, it will be warmed, cleaned and moistened in nasal cavity
upper. air air enters through the mouth
upper. throat (pharynx) collects incoming air from nose and mouth, passes it down toward the trachea
upper. voice box (larynx) contains vocal cords. it is place where moving air being breathed in and out creates voice sounds
upper. trachea passage leading from throat and lungs
lower. bronchial tubes branch off from trachea. each lung contains ONE bronchial tube
lower. lungs RIGHT LUNG IS DIVIDED INTO THREE SECTIONS OR LOBES. LEFT LUNG IS DIVIDED INTO TWO LOBES OR SECTIONS
lower. BRONCHIOLES at the END of each bronchiole tube are these before AIR SACS or AIVEOLI
lower. the alveoli sprouts from the very smallest BRONCHIAL BRANCHES. SMALL CLUSTERS OF AIR SACS.
lower. diaphragm stron wall of muscle that separates chest cavity, from abdominal cavity
what is the function of the circulatory system to transport materials within the organism, distribute HEAT and MAINTAIN BODY FLUIDS
materials that are transported include NUTRIENTS: oxygen, glucose WASTES: carbon dioxide HORMONES: insulin
cardiac circulation movement of blood within HEART
pulmonary circulation movement of blood BETWEEN HEART AND LUNGS
systemic circulation movement of blood to REST OF THE BODY
three components of the circulatory system heart blood vessels and blood
heart muscular pump, contains 4 chambers UPPER CHAMBERS ARE CALLED ATRIUM and LOWER CHAMBERS are CALLED THE VENTRICLES
heart is divided into the RIGHT SIDE AND LEFT SIDE BY SEPTUM
DEOXYGENATED BLOOD RETURNS TO HEART by the SUPERIOR VENA CAVA
OXYGENATED BLOOD LEAVES THE HEART BY THE AORTA
blood vessels contain arteries capillaries and veins
arteries carry blood away from the heart. have strong THICK WALLS to WITHSTAND HIGH PRESSURE
capillaries smallest blood vessel. location where exchange between blood and cells occurs
veins carry deoxygenated blood toward the heart. they have valves to prevent back flow of blood. U CAN SEE THIS ON UR WRIST
blood has three main functions 1.transportation, 2. protection and 3.regulation. there are red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells.
plants perform specific tasks such as energy production gas exchange, transportation and reproduction
meristemic cells are stem cells of the plant
dermal tissue Forms the outer part of the plant (leaves, stem, roots)
vascular tissue Responsible for the structures the move water and nutrients.
xylem transports water and minerals from the roots up.
phloem transports the sugar produced from photosynthesis through the plant.
ground tissue responsible for photosynthesis storage and support
root systems growth beneath ground, responsible for absorbing water and minerals from soil, storage or roots
shoot systems responsible for photosynthesis. produces flowers for sexual reproduction includes STEM LEAVES AND FLOWERS
leaf is responsible for photosynthesis
flower has reproductive cells and organs for sexual reproduction
stem supports plant and allows transportation of minerals
what is photosynthesis? carbon dioxide + water + sunlight -> chlorophyll +glucose + oxygen gas
different cells work together to carry out photosynthesis
cuticle protects leaf from EXCESS WATER LOSS AND SUNLIGHT
epidermis transparent and colorless cells which allow light to pass
spongy + palisade mesophyll cells which contain lots of chloroplasts
guard cells specialized epidermal cells that control opening and closing of the stomata
stomata opening that allows carbon dioxide gas to move in and oxygen gas out
vascular bundles VEINS of the plant that r used to transport materials (xylem phloem)
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