Exam positions and laboratory tests

tigrebright's version from 2015-11-30 05:41

Section 1

Question Answer
recumbentany position in which the patient is lying down
horizontal recumbent positionlying on the back, face up
dorsal recumbent positionlying on the back, face up with knees bent
lithotomy positionlying on the back, face up, with the feet and legs raised and supported in stirrups
prone positionlying on the abdomen face down
Sims' positionlying on the left side with the right knee and thigh drawn up with the left arm placed along the back
knee-chest positionlying face down with the hips bent so that the knees and chest rest on the table

Section 2

Question Answer
statfrom the Latin word meaning immediately
profiletests that are frequently performed as a group on automated multi-channel laboratory testing equipment
phlebotomista medical professional trained to draw blood from patients
phlebotomyaka venipuncture; the puncture of a vein for the purpose of drawing blood
arterial stickthe puncture of an artery to obtain arterial blood
capillary puncturetechnique used when only a small amount of blood is needed
complete blood cell countCBC; a series of tests performed as a group to evaluate several blood conditions
erythrocyte sedimentation ratetest based on the speed with which the red blood cells separate from the plasma and fall to the bottom of a specialized test tube
hematocritthe percentage, by volume, of a blood sample occupied by red cells; used to diagnose abnormal states of hydration, polycythemia and anemia
platelet countmeasures the number of platelets in a specified amount of blood; used to evaluate platelet function and monitor changes in the blood associated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy
thrombocytosisabnormal increase in platelets
thrombocrytopeniaabnormal decrease in platelets
red blood cell countdetermination of the number of erythrocytes in the blood
total hemoglobin testusually part of a complete blood count
elevated hemoglobinhigher than normal concentration in plasma due to polycythemia or dehydration
low hemoglobinlower than normal concentration in plasma due to anemia, recent hemorrhage or fluid retention
white blood cell countelevated amount of leukocytes can be an indication of infection or inflammation
white blood cell differential counttests to see what percentage of the total white blood cell count is composed of each of the 5 types of leukocytes; gives information about the patient's immune system, detects certain types of leukemia, and determines the severity of infection

Section 3

Question Answer
basic metabolic panela group of 8 specific blood tests that provide important information about the current status of the patient's kidneys, electrolyte balance, blood sugar and calcium levels
blood urea nitrogen testmeasures the amount nitrogen in the blood due to the waste product urea; performed to obtain an indication of kidney function
ureathe major end project of protein metabolism in urine and blood
crossmatch testsperformed to determine the compatibility of blood donor and recipient before a blood transfusion; agglutination means no match
agglutinationthe clumping together of red blood cells
c-reactive protein testperformed to identify high levels of inflammation within the body; c-reactive protein is produced by the liver only during episodes of acute inflammation
lipid panelmeasures the amounts of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides in blood
prothrombin timea test; abnormalities of clotting time and to monitor anticoagulant therapy
serum bilirubin testmeasures the ability of the liver to take up, process and secrete bilirubin into the bile;can determine whether a patient has liver disease or a blocked bile duct
thyroid-stimulating hormone assaymeasures circulating blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone
arterial blood gas analysismeasures the pH, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels of arterial blood

Section 4

Question Answer
urinalysisthe examination of the physical and chemical properties of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements
routine urinalysisperformed to screen for urinary and systemic disorders
microscopic examination of urineperformed when more detailed testing is necessary
castsfibrous or protein materials that are thrown off into the urine in kidney disease
average pH range of urine4.5 to 8.0
pHdescribes the degree of acidity of alkalinity of a substance
acidosisexcessive acid in the body fluids
alkaline urinecan indicate conditions such as a urinary tract infection
specific gravity of urinereflects the amount of wastes, minerals and solids present
low specific gravitycharacteristic of diabetes insipidus
high specific gravityaka concentrated urine; occurs in such conditions as dehydration, liver failure or shcok
albuminuriathe presence of the protein albumin in the urine; high levels are a sign of impaired kidney function
bacteriuriapresence of bacteria in the urine
calciuriathe presence of calcium in the urine; high levels can be caused by hyperparathyroidism; low levels can indicate ostomalacia
creatinuriaincreased concentration of creatinine; an indication of increased muscle breakdown or disruption of kidney function
creatininewaste product of muscle metabolism
drug-screening urine testa rapid method of identifying the presence of one or more drugs
glycosuriapresence of glucose in the urine; most commonly caused by diabetes
hematuriapresence of blood in the urine; can be caused by kidney stones, infection, kidney damage or bladder cancer
ketonuriathe presence of ketones in the urine; can indicate starvation or uncontrolled diabetes
ketonesformed when the body breaks down fat
proteinuriathe presence of an abnormal amount of protein in the urine; usually a sign of kidney disease
pyuriapus in the urine
turbidcloudy or smoky appearance
urine culture and sensitivity testsaka urine c and s; used to identify the cause of a urinary tract infection and to determine which antibiotic would be the most effective treatment