Exam Poly Sci

vokisayo's version from 2018-03-05 03:00


Question Answer
To help bolster their shrinking treasury the British began to exploit the colonies through a policy knownmercantilism.
were organized by Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry in 1765 to act out against the Crown (see the Boston Massacre (1770) and the Boston Tea Party (1773)).Sons of Liberty
met in Philadelphia in September and October 1774.The First Continental Congress
convened on May 10, 1775, By this time, most members were united in their hostility toward BritainSecond Continental Congress
The Congress declared the colonies in astate of defense,”
– the sovereignty surrendered by the people was vested in single, national government.Unitary
the sovereignty surrendered by the people was vested separately in state and national governments.Federation
the sovereignty surrendered by the people was vested in state governments which could then create an organization to manage the affairs of the nation.Confederation
a Revolutionary War veteran, was outraged and frustrated with the new law and the huge debt burden of farmers. Daniel Shays
proposed that sovereignty be vested in the people and not the states.Virginia Plan
strengthened the Articles by giving Congress the ability to raise revenues and would have kept a unicameral legislature chosen by state legislatures.New Jersey Plan
power is divided among the states and the national government.Federalism
power was divided vertically through federalism and horizontally through separation of powers among the three branches of government.Separation of Powers
The power of each branch of government is checked or limited and balanced by powers held by other branches.Checks and Balances
Article VI says that federal law is supreme. So if the states and federal government argue, the feds win.The Supremacy Clause
establishes the legislative branch.Article I
establishes the executive branch headed by the president.Article II
establishes the judicial branch.Article III
establishes the "full faith and credit clause" that mandates that states honor the laws and proceedings of another state. Articles IV
also include rules on the admission of new states to the union, how amendments can be added to the Constitution, prohibits religious tests for holding office, and set out procedures for the ratification of the document.Articles IV through VII
all legislative powers granted to a bi-cameral congressArticle I Section 1
Enumerated powers. -Taxation, coin money, regulate commerce, create a post office, raise armies, declare war, etc.Article I Section 8
Judges hold office “during good behavior.”Article III Section 1
Marbury v Madison (1803)Judicial Review
Provided women a Federal cause of action to sue those who attack them in Federal Court.Violence Against Women Act of 1994
Made it a Federal crime to carry a firearm within 1000 feet of a school.The Gun Free School Zones Act of 1990
The Full Faith and Credit Clause. Article IV Section 1
The Republican Guarantee Clause.Article IV Section 4
The Supremacy ClauseArticle VI Paragraph 2
the Oath or Affirmation Clause.Article VI Paragraph 3
Limits only the powers of the National Government. NOT the states, nor private parties. The Bill of Rights
The division of power between a national government and a set of semi-autonomous sub-national governments.Federalism
Absolute power to ruleSovereignty
The Republican Guarantee ClauseArticle IV – Section 4
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively or to the people. The Tenth Amendment
Enumerated powersArticle I – Section 8
The Enumerated Powers specified in Article I – Section 8 impose well defined limits. Dual Federalism
The National and State governments powers in intermixed in the policy making arena.Co-operative Federalism
Allows national income tax16th Amendment
allows for direct popular election of senators17th Amendment
Strings attachedFormula Grants
Fewer stringsBlock Grants
Areas of law in which national power supersedes (overrules) the power of the States.Preemption
Every state except RI and Connecticut have counties (although in Louisiana they are called parishes and in Alaska boroughs). Counties.
Villages, towns, and cities are established and authorized by the state.Municipalities
The most numerous type of government today including school districts, park and water districts.Special Districts.
Political “Ideology?”A constrained, coherent set of beliefs about government and the role it should play in society.
The Manifestation(s) of PartyThe Party in Government The Party in the Electorate The Party Organization
the personal rights and freedoms that the are afforded extraordinary protection from governmental interference. Civil Liberties
restrain or dictate how individuals act.limitations on the power of government
The Fourteenth AmendmentTwo possible avenues. Privileges and Immunities Due Process
Interpreting the Free Exercise Clause This freedom is not absolute.government must simply remain NEUTRAL toward religion
SeparationistsA Wall of Great Strength. There must be absolutely no aid to or interference with Religion on the part of Government, and no interference in Government on the part or the Church
Accommodationists: There is a natural linkage between the Church and a “Christian” republic. The Government may assist churches, but may not favor one church over another and may not create a “National” Church.
Abington v. Schempp (1963)the Court ruled that starting the school day with a reading of the Lord’s Prayer was an unconstitutional establishment of religion.
Santa Fe v. Doe A student read prayer over the public address system violates the establishment clause.
Scheck v. United States (1919),Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes said that speech can be prohibited when it poses a “Clear and Present Danger” of serious harm to the country.
Pure SpeechSpoken words that express political or social points of view.
Symbolic SpeechNon-verbal expression that conveys a political or social message.
Libelis a written falsehood that defames the character of a person.
Slandera spoken falsehood that defames the character of a person.
Content Based Restrictions based on the content of the speaker’s message.
Time, Place, and Manner Restrictions Limitations on the method used to communicate, the location of the action or speech, and the time the speech of action takes place
Designated Protest Zones –Usually created in association with a major event. For example, a national political convention or an international summit
Free Speech Zones – Like “Protest Zones” these policies limit expression to a specific location. Outside of the “Zone” speech can be stopped.
Griswold v. Connecticut (1964)Privacy is not specifically mentioned, but the existence of the right to privacy is implied in the First, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Ninth Amendments.
Roe v. Wade (1973)The Supreme Court ruled that a Texas law prohibiting abortion violated a woman's constitutional right to privacy.
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989)- upheld fetal viability tests
Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey (1992) Pennsylvania was allowed to limit abortions as long as they did not pose 'an undue burden' on pregnant women.
Lawrence v. Texas, the Supreme Court ruled that privacy rights apply to gays and lesbians.
The Fourth Amendmenta “Reasonable Search” or seizure
Self Incrimination (5th amendment)Extracted confessions
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)Suspects must be informed of their rights when placed under arrest.
The Exclusionary RuleIf evidence (either physical evidence or testimony/confessions) are acquired illegally, it may not be used in court to convict the accused.
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) (6th amendment)Requires the state to provide an attorney for persons accused of felonies.
The Eighth AmendmentProhibits “cruel and unusual” punishment.
Furman v. Georgia (1972) the Court ruled that the death penalty constituted unconstitutional cruel and unusual punishment when it was imposed in an arbitrary manner.
McCleskey v. Kemp (1987) the Court rules that the death penalty – even when it appeared to discriminate against African Americans – did not violate the Constitution.
McCleskey v. Zant (1991)the Court made it more difficult for death row inmates to file repeated appeals.

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