Exam 3

disneykayla's version from 2015-10-01 13:44


Question Answer
What does DNA stand for?Deoxyribonucleic Acid
_________ and ___ were credited with the discovery of DNAWatson and Crick
Who really discovered DNA?Rosalind Franklin
What is the names of units in the DNA?Nucleotides
Nucleotides are bonded how?Covalently
Nucleotide qualities? 2Creates sugar phosphate backbone with Nitrogenous bases as appendages
What are the 5 Nitrogenous Bases?Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Uracil
When does Uracil come into play?It replaces Thymine during transcription
What is a Genome?Organism's complete set of DNA.
What is a Chromosome and how many are in humans?One or more unique pieces of DNA, humans have 46
What are genes?Specific sequence of DNA, necessary to produce protein of a molecule
What is an allele?Different form of the same gene
What is the physical manifestation of a gene?Phenotype
What is Transciption?Transfer of genetic info from DNA to RNA
What is Translation?Transfer of Genetic info from RNA to protein
Amino Acids produce _____ and what do those do?Proteins; create physical characteristics
_____ is essential to evolution (ex.)Mutations; BRCA1 (breast cancer)
Types of mutations (3)Errors in Cell division, radiation, chemical induced (smoking)
What is an example of biotechnology?GMO, modifying organisms for practical purposes
Steps of Biotechnology (5)Chop up DNA from donor, amplify small amount, insert into bacterial cells, grow separate bacteria colonies, identify colonies
Biotechnology in human health (2)Diabetes (insulin), and gene therapies in bubble boy (not very successful)
Biotechnology in Agriculture Increasing nutrition, pest resistant plants, faster growth and bigger bodies
GMO cons Escaping animals could damage other populations, humane treatment of animals, resistance to weeds, corporate ag companies
How is Cloning important?Beneficial for agriculture and gene therapy, ethical issues
What are Stem cells and where are they found?Undifferentiated cells; embryos or bone marrow
How are stem cells used?To grow new organs, helps diseases such as brain like parkinsons and paralysis


Question Answer
Cell Division in Prokaryotes happen how?Binary Fission (asexual), Split into two
Somatic Cells are what?Every other cell besides reproductive like skin and body cells
What are the reproductive cells?Sperm and Eggs
What are the 2 types of cell division of Eukaryotes?Mitosis and Meiosis
When does DNA replication happen?During interphase of a cell
What happens in the unwinding stage?DNA has to unzip itself
What happens in the replication stage?Single strand becomes double and enzymes connect appropriate bases
What are the are the enzymes in DNA?Nitrogenous bases, ACGT
What is mitosis and what cells use it?Replaces dead cells and allows for growth, somatic cells
5 phases of mitosis?Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
What is interphase?Normal cell activity, DNA replication occurs
What is Prophase?Chromosomes condense, nuclear membrane breaks down, spindle fibers attach to sister chromatids
What is metaphase?Middle, sister chromatids line up in the center
What is anaphase?Chromatids pulled apart to opposite poles
What is Telophase?New nuclear membranes form around chromosomes, cytokinesis occurs
What is cancer and how is it caused?Out of control cell division, caused byx-rays, viruses, unknown factors; create tumors
What does Metastasis mean?Spreads throughout body
How do you treat cancer? Removal, chemo interferes with cell division, radiation, prevention.
Why does chemo effect people?Fatigue caused by lack of red blood cells limiting O2
Meiosis requires what?Two parents, haploid and diploid
Haploid is? Half the genetic info, 23 chromosomes, allele variation
Diploid is?Skin cells, liver cells, have 46 chromosomes
End result of Meosis II is?4 haploid cells where there is no duplication
How is the sex chromosome determined?Through the father
What is karyotyping?Looking at chromosomes in reproduction
If there is an extra trisome 21 what does that cause?Down syndrome, seen often in older women
X_ causes what?Turner Syndrome
XXY causes?Klinefelter syndrome; kind of similar to intersex in men
XYY causes?Super males
XXX causes?Metafemales, usually no problems other than sterile


Question Answer
What are some examples of single-gene traits?Cleft chin, unattached earlobes, widow's peaks
Who is the father of genetics?Gregor Mendel
What kind of plant did Gregor Mendel use?Pea Plant
What is the Law of Segregation?Only ONE of TWO alleles for a gene is put into a gamete, and at fertilization, an offspring receives one allele per gene
What is a Phenotype? What you actually see, red, white, etc.
What is a Genotype?The actual gene description. TT, Tt, tt 1:2:1
What is heterozygous?Tt, opposites
What is homozygous, recessive vs. dominant?TT, tt, same gene
What is Pedigrees?Record of ancestry, can be traced through specific family genes and traits
What is incomplete dominance?Neither recessive or dominant, in the middle. Pink instead of red or white
What is Codominance and example?Neither masks the other, Heterozygous sickle cell disease, there is some good red blood cells and some bad.
Example of Multiple allelism?Blood types, A, AB, O, + and -s
What are polygenic traits?Multiple options; skin color, eye color, height
What is Pleiotropy?One gene has many effects, sickle cell disrupts blood cells' oxygen delivery, causes them to be inhospitable to some parasites; can be good
What is a sex-linked trait example?Color blindness (Carried in chromosome)
Can environment effect genetics?Yes, dark colors on animals in certain places to keep them warm
What is the Law of Independent Assortment?All traits are inherited dependent of each other (sometimes; red hair and freckles)
What kind a D4DR gene on Chromosome 11 cause?Risk-taking, alcoholism, drug abuse, etc

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