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Exam 1 Study Guide

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domineeringdodo's version from 2015-05-26 17:23

Section

1. Cardiac output (CO) is affected by HEART RATE and STROKE VOLUME.
2. Can competent patients of legal age refuse medical care? YES, ALL PATIENTS THAT EXHIBIT COMPETENCE AND ARE OF LEGAL AGE MAY REFUSE MEDICAL CARE; THIS MAY ALSO INCLUDE CERTAIN GROUPS SUCH AS MINORS AND OTHER SPECIAL CASES.
3. Which arteries do NOT carry highly oxygenated blood? PULMONARY ARTERY.
4. List two unique functions of the emergency medical dispatcher (EMD). DISPATCH THE PROPER RESOURCES TO AN EMERGENCY SCENE, PROVIDE CALLERS WITH RELEVANT INSTRUCTIONS TO ASSIST WITH THE SCENE
5. As an EMT, you may be authorized to administer aspirin to a patient with chest pain prior to contacting medical control based on STANDING ORDERS.
6. The DIAPHRAGM is a muscular dome that forms the inferior boundary of the thorax, separating the thorax from the abdomen.
7. The air you breathe is 21% oxygen, and the air you exhale is 16% oxygen.
8. An EMT may injure his or her back, even if it is straight, if they bend their back forward at the HIPS.
9. An increase in heart rate and contractility occurs due to stimulation of which receptor sites? BETA 1
10. The final stage of death and dying is MOST commonly displayed as ACCEPTANCE.
11. Trauma to the OCCIPITAL lobe of the brain would likely result in visual disturbances.
12. What Act MOST affects EMS personnel when concerning patient privacy? HIPPA (HEALTH INSURANCE PORTABILITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY ACT)
13. To minimize the risk of injuring yourself when lifting or moving a patient, you should keep the weight AS CLOSE AS YOU CAN TO THE BODY.
14. The MOST appropriate carrying device to use when moving a patient across rough or uneven terrain is the BASKET STRECHER.
15. What is the MOST effective strategy for managing stress on the scene of a high priority call? FOCUS ON PROVIDING HIGH QUALITY PATIENT CARE
16. The scoop stretcher is designed to carry with type of patient? A PATIENT THAT IS LYING ON THE FLOOR OR ANOTHER RELATIVELY FLAT SURFACE.
17. Skeletal muscle is also called VOLUNTARY muscle.
18. The autonomic nervous system is composed of the SYMPATHETIC and PARASYMPATHETIC system.
19. The proper technique for using the power grip is to lift with PALMS UP, HANDS ABOUT 10" APART, ALL FINGERS AT THE SAME ANGLE, AND FULLY SUPPORT THE HANDLE ON A CURVED PALM.
20. You are dispatched to an apartment complex for a shooting. Law enforcement personnel are present and have the suspect in custody. You find the patient lying in a narrow space between the couch and coffee table of his small apartment. He is semiconscious and has a large gunshot wound to his chest. What would be your first action to create more space to work on this patient? MOVE THE COFFEE TABLE, MAKING A MENTAL NOTE WHERE IT WAS PLACED IN CASE THERE IS AN LEGAL INVESTIGATION.
21. Two waste products of aerobic metabolism include CARBON DIOXIDE and WATER.
22. What are agonal respirations? BREATHING AFTER THE HEART HAS STOPPED. IT IS GENERALLY SLOW AND SHALLOW BECAUSE IT IS THE RESULT OF THE BRAIN STILL SENDING WEAK SIGNALS TO THE BREATHING MUSCLES.
23. Maintaining, updating, and expanding your knowledge and skills are considered part of CONTINUING education in EMS.
24. List the sections of the spinal column in descending. CERVICAL THORASIC, LUMBAR, SACRAL, COCCYCAL.
25. Why are prehospital emergency care guidelines updated on a regular basis? ADDITIONAL INFORMATION AND EVIDENCE INDICATE THAT THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A CERTAIN TECHNIQUE HAS CHANGED.
26. You are transporting an elderly woman who has possibly experienced a stroke. She is obviously scared but is unable to talk and cannot move the entire right side of her body. In addition to providing the medical care that she needs, you should ACKNOWLEDGE THAT SHE IS SCARED AND TELL HER YOU ARE GOING TO TAKE GOOD CARE OF HER.
27. Which organ lies in the lateral and posterior portion of the left upper quadrant (LUQ) of the abdomen and filters out worn out blood cells? SPLEEN
28. The spread of HIV and hepatitis in the health care setting can usually be traced to CARELESS HANDLING OF SHARPS.
29. Why is the location of the call NOT considered to be protected health information (PHI)? IT MAY NEED TO BE RELEASED FOR MEDICAL BILLING
30. A critical incident stress debriefing should be conducted WITHIN 24 TO 72 HOURS following the incident.
31. White blood cells are also called leukocytes and function by PROTECTING THE BODY FROM INFECTION.
32. The brain connects to the spinal cord through a large opening at the base of the skull called the FORAMEN MAGNUM.
33. Will the Good Samaritan law protect an EMT from gross negligence? NO, GROSS NEGLIGENCE IMPLIES RECKLSS DISREGARD FOR A DUTY OR STANDARD OF CARE.
34. Patients who become dependent upon EMS personnel or other health care providers often feel SHAMED.
35. The person who is responsible for authorizing EMTs to perform emergency medical care in the field under their license is the MEDICAL DIRECTOR.
36. Oxygen and carbon dioxide pass across the alveolar membrane in the lungs through a process called DIFFUSION.
37. Stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system would cause the heart rate to DECREASE.
38. You arrive at the scene of an apparent death. When evaluating the patient, list two definitive signs of death you what look for: DECAPITATION, DEPENDENT LIVIDITY (BLOOD SETTLING), RIGOR MORTIS, AND PUTREFACTION.
39. The circulation of blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells' current needs is called PERFUSION.
40. The leaf-shaped flap of tissue that prevents food and liquid from entering the trachea during swallowing is called the EPIGLOTIS.
41. EMT training in nearly every state meets or exceeds the guidelines recommended by DOT and what other national agency? NREMT
42. You are summoned to a convalescent center for an 88-year-old female with an altered mental status. A staff nurse advises you that the patient has terminal cancer and her physician stated that she would probably die within the next few hours; a valid do not resuscitate (DNR) order is presented to you. When caring for this patient, you should not carry out normal patient care procedures while she is alive? True/FALSE
43. The EMT's scope of practice within his or her local response area is defined by the MEDICAL DIRECTOR.
44. Vector-borne transmission of an infectious organism occurs via A LIVING ORGANISM.
45. The major artery that supplies all other arteries with blood is the AORTA.
46. The vocal cords are located in the LARYNX.
47. When using a body drag to pull a patient who is on the ground, you should do so from what position? A KNEELING/CROUCHED POSITION
48. The NREMT provides a national standard for EMS TESTING AND CERTIFICATION.
49. The backup system of respiratory control, which is based on low concentrations of oxygen in the blood, is called the HYPOXIC DRIVE.
50. The standards for prehospital emergency care and the individuals who provide it in a state are typically regulated by the STATE OFFICE OF EMS.
51. The cell must have OXYGEN in order to generate proper amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
52. The distal aspect of the tibia forms the MEDIAL MALLEOLUS.
53. Stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors results in the blood vessel causes them to CONSTRICT.
54. Providing competent care that meets current standards is the best way to minimize the risk of LAWSUIT.
55. You are transporting a 40-year-old male with respiratory distress. The patient tells you that he recently had a positive tuberculosis (TB) skin test and is currently being evaluated for possible TB. You should APPLY A NENREBREATHER MASK ON THE PATIENT AND A HEPA RESPIRATOR ON YOURSELF.
56. ANAEROBIC metabolism produces lactic acid and occurs when cellular oxygen is limited.
57. You arrive at the scene of a domestic violence situation. As you approach the doorway of the apartment, you hear screaming and the statement “He has a gun!” Your MOST appropriate action should be to RETREAT TO A SAFE PLACE UNTIL THE SCENE HAS BEEN SECURED.
58. Ensuring that employees understand what they should do and why it is important is the COMPLIANCE monitoring component of an infection control plan.
59. In what of the situation is an emergency patient move indicated? WHENEVER THE EMT IS UNABLE TO PROTECT THEMSELVES OR THE PATIENT FROM SCENE HAZARDS.
60. Why does OSHA not allow you to wear ordinary prescription glasses for splash protection safety glasses? PERSCRIPTION GLASSES OFF VERY LITTLE SIDE PROTECTION.
61. A distal fracture of the humerus would be just above the ELBOW.
62. Your employer must offer you the hepatitis B vaccine, but is allowed/NOT ALLOWED to charge you for it.
63. A patient has a blood pressure of 130/70 mm Hg. The “130” represents ventricular CONTRACTION.
64. Dead space is the portion of the respiratory system that HAS NO ALVEOLI, AND, THEREFORE, LITTLE RO NO EXCHANGE OF GAS OCCURS THERE.
65. In order to facilitate a safe and coordinated move, the team leader should use PREPARATORY COMMANDS to initiate any moves.
66. An appropriate demonstration of professionalism when your patient is frightened, demanding, or unpleasant is to continue to be NONJUDGEMENTAL, COMPASSIONATE, AND RESPECTFUL.
67. The MEDULLA OBLONGATA is sensitive to pH changes and sends messages via the phrenic nerve to contract the diaphragm.
68. If an action or procedure that was performed on a patient is not recorded on the written report it WAS NOT PERFORMED in the eyes of the law.
69. List three functions of the skin. TO PROTECT THE BODY FROM ITS ENVIRONMENT, TO REGULATE THE TEMPERATURE OF THE BODY, AND TO TRANSMIT INFORMATION FROM THE ENVIRONMENT TO THE BRAIN.
70. Worn out blood cells, foreign substances, and bacteria are filtered from the blood by the SPLEEN.
71. When carrying a patient on a backboard up or down stairs you should keep the head ELEVATED.
72. When moving a conscious, weak patient down a flight of stairs, you should use a STAIR CHAIR.
73. Normal breathing works by negative pressure which involves DECREASING the pressure within the chest cavity to inhale.
74. Hemoglobin is a molecule that attaches to ERYTHROCYTES and carries oxygen.
75. Acting in such a way as to make another person fear immediate bodily harm is called ASSAULT.
76. When carrying a patient up or down stairs, you should avoid using a WHEELED STRETCHER whenever possible.
77. When performing the rapid extrication technique to remove a patient from his or her vehicle, you should apply a cervical collar and remove the patient on a LONG BACKBOARD.
78. The FIRST rule of safe lifting is to KEEP YOUR BACK IN A STRAIGHT, VERTICAL POSITION.
79. Obtaining continuing medical education is the responsibility of the INDIVIDUAL EMT.
80. The exchange of oxygen and nutrients for waste products of metabolism occurs at the cellular level in the CAPILLARY blood vessels.
81. The diaphragm is a unique muscle because it both a VOLUNTARY (SKELETAL) and INVOLUNTARY (SMOOTH) muscle.
82. The heart muscle is called the CARDIAC MUSCLE.
83. What set of nerve pathways is responsible for carrying information from the body to the central nervous system?
84. The central nervous system is composed of the BRAIN, BRAIN STEM, AND SPINAL CORD.
85. What type of consent allows treatment of a patient who is unconscious or mentally incapacitated? IMPLIED CONSENT
86. Upon arriving at the scene of a motor vehicle crash, you note that two small cars collided head-on; the occupants are still in their vehicles. The fire department is in the process of stabilizing the vehicles and law enforcement personnel are directing traffic. After parking the ambulance at a safe distance, you and your partner should put on HIGH VISIBILITY SAFETY VESTS before entering the traffic area.
87. Your BEST protection against legal liability when a competent patient refuses EMS care and transport is to thoroughly DOCUMENT the event.
88. You arrive at the scene of a motor vehicle versus pedestrian accident. The patient, a 13 -year-old male, is unconscious and has multiple injuries. As you are treating the child, a law enforcement officer advises you that the child's parents will be at the scene in approximately 15 minutes. What should you do? BEGIN TREATMENT AND THEN TRANSPORT TO THE HOSPITAL AND HAVE THE PARENTS MEET YOU AT THE HOSPITAL.
89. Regarding the EMS medical director and an EMT's scope of practice, a medical director may expand that scope of practice after proper training and state approval. TRUE/FALSE
90. An intoxicated 40-year-old male is found lying face down. How would you document his body's position? PRONE
91. Is there a vaccine against HIV infection? NO
92. An EMT advises a patient of the risks of receiving treatment and receives consent. This it considered EXPRESSED consent.
93. What is the MOST appropriate method to use when moving a patient from his or her bed to the wheeled stretcher? DRAW SHEET METHOD
94. The largest portion of the brain, which is commonly referred to as the “gray matter,” is called the CEREBELLUM.
95. When caring for a 65-year-old male with respiratory distress, you place him in a comfortable position but do not apply oxygen. The patient's condition continues to deteriorate and he develops cardiac arrest and dies at the hospital. This scenario is an example of GROSS NEGLIGENCE.
96. Quid pro quo, a type of sexual harassment, occurs when the harasser REQUESTS SEXUAL FAVORS IN EXCHANGE FOR SOMETHING ELSE.
97. What type of medical direction do standing orders and protocols describe? OFFLINE MEDICAL DIRECTION
98. Excluding the diaphragm, a person usually has NO CONTROL over smooth muscle.
99. Upon arriving at the scene of a motor vehicle crash, you find a single patient still seated in his car. There are no scene hazards. As you approach the vehicle, you note that the patient is semiconscious and has a large laceration to his forehead. You should direct your partner to apply MANUAL IN-LINE SUPPORT of the patient's head.