kisferkate's version from 2016-10-03 18:37

Section 1

Question Answer
Natural selectionprocess of non-random survival of useful innovations that, cumulatively can lead to what seem to be well-designed structures without the involvement of a designer
Vestigial structures parts of functionless structures that are a testament to evolutionary history
VariationIndividual organisms may be similar but are not identical to each other, minor variation in characteristics
HeredityMany of the characteristics that vary from individual to individual are passed on from parents to offspring
CompetitionNot all individuals have the same representation in the next generation (die early, cannot reproduce, reproduce fewer offspring)
Natural SelectionCharacteristics which confer an advantage will become more common and persist, while disadvantages disappear
Adaptationsfunctional systems well designed for a particular environment
Homologiessimilarities stemming from common origin (bat phalanges vs human fingers)
Analogiesproduced by convergent evolution, characteristics
Modern Synthesis (Neo-Darwinism)Integration of Natural Selection with Mendelism
Heritabletransmitted from parents to offspring

Section 2

Question Answer
Phenotypeobservable characteristics of an individual (size, shape, color, ect,)
Genotypeset of genetic variants that an individual bears
GenesNot always identical (even in same species) differ across species
eukaryotesorganisms (animals and plants) whose cells have nuclei and mitochondria
prokaryotesorganisms like bacteria
ProteinsGives cells their shape and structure, form connective tissues, hormones, antibodies and enzymes
Amino Acids20 types, form long chains that determine what kind of properties the protein will be.
Genomeentire set of genetic material
Allelesgenes that come in alternate forms
diploidCells with two copies of each gene
haploidCells with one copy of each gene
Central Dogma of GeneticsGenes affect the properties of proteins but proteins do not affect the properties of genes
Somatic lines of cellsonly capable of a certain function (making more phenotype)
Germ Lines of cells (gametes)sex cells, sperm in males, egg cells in females
meiosiscell division in gametes
mitosissplitting of somatic cells into genetically identical versions of themselves
Chromosomes23 pairs, one from 46 chromosomes
4 BasesAdenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine
Base PairingA -> T C->G
TranscriptionProcess of copying DNA sequences into sequences on an RNA molecule
TranslationProcess of turning base sequences in mRNA into amino acid sequences in proteins
exonsstretches condones translated into protein
introns noncoding within gene
pseudogenesOnce were genes (fallen out of use)
transposable elements nearly identical copies of particular sequence, easily copied into genome
Simple sequence repeatsSmaller sequences are vulnerable to mutation

Section 3

Question Answer
Recombinationsequence of exchanging DNA causing variability
Linkage Disequilibriumtwo genes residing on same chromosome, higher probability together
Mutation propensity of DNA sequences to alter during replication
Transitionschanges between C&T or C&A
Transversionschanges between dissimilar pairs like C&G or C&A

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