aschlensker's version from 2015-10-27 00:16


Question Answer
Main idea 1darwin observed variation among island species
Main idea 2darwin realized species could adapts to their environment
main idea 3darwin observer fossil and geological evidence of an ancient earth
variationdifference in individuals in a population
tortosisspices were on different islands, different shaped shells and neaclines
finchesspecies had different beaks related to their food source
adaptiontrait that helps an organism compete for survival and reproduction
fossil evidencedinosaurs, rock, organisms preserved in amber, tar pits, fossilized plants
geological evidenceradio active carbon dating, plate tectonics
artifical selectionhumans select breed individuals with desirable traits
heritabilityappearance pass on traits to offspring
struggle for survivalmore offspring are produced that can survive
natural selectionMechanicism by which individuals with desirable traits produce more offspring and overtime those desirable traits increase in frequency in the population
main ideas about theory of natural selectionKey insights led to Darwin's theory - Natural Selection explains how evolutions can occur
four main principles of natural selection 1. Variation - 2. Overproduction -3. Adaption -4. Descent with Modification
variationThere is genetic diversity among members of a population
overproductionBecause of competition for survival and mates not all offspring will survive and reproduce
adaptionTraits that help an organism survive and/ or reproduce will increase in frequency
descent with modificationOvertime all members of a population may have the beneficial adaption
main idea of evolutionEvidence of common ancestry among species from many sources
fossilsFossils showed a series of organisms have lived on Earth
molecular recordEveryone uses same genetic gene
embriologyRelated organisms have similar structures during development
anatomy the study of body structure
covergent evolutionevolving similar solutions to similar "problems"
another main idea of evidenceAnalogous structures are not evidence of a recent ancestor
analogous structures- Look similar - Same function - Different structure and development - No revolutionary evidence - Ex: insect wing, bird wing, dolphin
homologous structures-Structures that come from the same origin - Divergent evolution - Same internal structure --> different external form because different functions - Reveal that the same body parts can be modified to perform different functions
vestigial structures-Structure that were used in an organisms ancestor, but are not used anymore - Ex: appendix
why is genetic variation beneficialPopulations with genetic varations are more likely to survive if the enviorment changes
how fanatic variation is stored in a populationIn the population gene pool--> (combinded alleles of individuals in a population)
how genetic variation is measured- Allele frequency - Measure of how common an allele is in a poulation
two main sources of genetic variation-Mutation -Recombination
mutationchange in DNA
populationGroup of organisms of the same species in the same area
definition of evolutionChange in a species overtime; process of biological change by which descendents come to differ from the ancestors
modern theory of evolution- Charles Darwin was not the first to think of evolution, but he did figure out how it works (mostly) - He didn't know about genes, so he couldn't know about mutations
Modern Theory (Combination of Darwin's Ideas with a modern understanding of genetics and other ideas) include these ideas:- Earth is old= still changing - Variation - No variation= no evolution (nothing to select) - Species with no variation are usually the first to die when the eviorment changes - Inheritance - Over-production - Competion for limited resources - Adaptions - Survival and Reproduction of the Fittest - Natural Selection - Common Descent - Species that do not have adaptions become extinct - New traits come out of two mechanisms: mutation and recombination
main idea 1 about modern theoryEarth is very old but is always changing
main idea 2 about modern theoryNo variation= no evolution or natural selection, there is nothing to "select"
main idea 3 about modern theorySpecies with no variation are usually the first to die when the enviorment changes
inheritancePassing down traits from one generation to the next
competition for limited resourcesThe organisms are competing for food, nesting, mates etc.
main idea 4 about modern theoryTraits are inherited randomly. Individual offspring of "fit" parents can still inherit "unfit" traits
main idea 5 about modern theoryNo one is choosing who survives and who doesn't. Individuals had to inherit the fit traits by the luck of the draw. Conditions of the organism's enviorment select who can compete better.
common descentModern species evolved from earlier, different species and share a common ancestor
main idea 7 about modern theoryNew traits (variations come out of two mechanisms: mutations and recombinations
main idea 8 about modern theoryDeeper fossils are typically older than those above them
transitional formsFound in the fossil record
evolutionary treesShows the relationship between living and extinct species
The population of organisms that would be in greatest danger of becoming extinct is...Population of organisms having few variations living in an unstabe enviorments
Which statement is not a part of the concept natural selection?Genes of an individual apapt to a changing enviorment
environment and evolutionSpecies usuually evolve when the enviorment changes - changes need to be long term- -some changes: climate change, change in temp, change in water and food availabilty, introduction of new food, species may be move to new location/enviorment
what to know about evolution- enviormental change does not cause envolution to occur
fossil recordpreserves extinct species as well as transitional forms between different types of organisms
radioactive datingof rocks consistently confirm the age of the Earth and fossils
comparative studiescomparisons of the anatomy , embryology, chemistry and genes of species confirm expected realtionships
direct observationhumans have seen evolution occur both in nature and in the lab - bacteria evolved reasistance from antibiotics -insects evolved resistance from pesticides -modeling nautral selection with selective breeding to alter a species traits
how old is the earth4.55 billion years

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