Evolution Test II

kisferkate's version from 2016-11-14 06:30

Section 1

Question Answer
Rule 1: Clearly defined boundariesThe identity of the group and the boundaries of the shared resource are clearly delineated.
Rule 2: Proportional equivalence between benefits and costsgroup must negotiate a system that rewards members for their contributions
Rule 3: Collective-choice arrangementsmust be able to create at least some of their own rules and make their own decisions by consensu
Rule 4: Monitoringundermin-ing strategies can be detected at relatively low cost by norm-abiding members
Rule 5: Graduated sanctions Transgressions need not require heavy-handed punishment, at least initially.
Rule 6: Conflict resolution mechanismsmust be possible to resolve conflicts quickly and in ways that are perceived as fair
Rule 7: Minimal recognition of rights to organize. Groups must have the authority to conduct their own affairs
Rule 8: larger social systems, there must be appropriate coordination among relevant groupsEvery sphere of activity has an optimal scale
polycentric governanceLarge scale governance requires finding the optimal scale for each sphere of activity and appropriately coordinating the activities
subsidiarityassigns governance tasks by default to the lowest jurisdiction
Ostrom Principleseight design principles that enable CPR groups to effectively manage their resources
roups of public good providers will survive and reproduce better than groups of free-riders,
Group selection natural selection acts at the level of the group, instead of at the more conventional level of the individual
Multilevel selection theory focuses on thephenotype

Section 2

Question Answer
Waddington's epigenetic landscapemetaphor for how gene regulation modulates development.
chreodeThe marbles will compete for the grooves on the slope, and come to rest at the lowest points
Introns are removed from mRNAthis process can remove exons as well
Dutch “Hunger Winter” first trimester the babies (P) were born normally weighted; in the third trimester (Q) they were small
the in the next generationbabies of P were heavy, and the babies of Q were normal
Epigenticsan inheritance stream in its own right, ontogenetically and to a degree across generations
Variation in gene expression is involved in genetic selectionnot random
Variation Comes FromSex and mutation
SexRandom combinations of chromosomes, “Crossing over” or recombination
In a stable environment, asexual reproduction is advantaged over the short term
mutation will gradually accumulateSexual selection helps weed them out
In a highly competitive or challenging environment, sex should beadvantaged because faster evolution is possible
Sex or Not, Special that Do Bothreproduce asexually when times are good, and sexually when they are not
both asexual and sexual exampleaphids, sexually in summer and spring, asexually in winter and fall
Artificial selection can lead tohigh cross-over strains
Crossing over rates appear to be responsive to environmental stress
Mutationneeds to be both durable and changeable
There are system to detect faulty DNA and repair it There are system to make sure it is replicated accurately (proof reading)
Rate of error in replicating human DNA: 1 in 10,000,000,000 nucleotides
With out error detection and correction, the estimated rate1 in 100
source of random mutation may bedamage from chemical mutagens, x rays, UV light, base errors in copying, etc

Section 3

Question Answer
Conservationistsread the vast archives and apply solutions
Conservationists survivalIf a problem is truly new they can survive only by accident
Explorerswhen encountering any problem each member should find creative solutions
Explorers survivalIf a solution is found all will adopt it but the next time another problem is encountered the process will repeat
Interpreterspast rules are metaphorical. When encountering a problem apply past solutions but with current interpretation, based on broad rules
Interpreters survivalbest, apply variations of past with novel interpretations of situation
Conservationists physical strategystay with the past and try to eliminate all mutations
Explorers physical strategyencourage high rate of random mutations
Interpreters physical strategysome mutations that are neither directed nor fully random
Induced global mutationsif bacteria cannot grow and reproduce, mut
Induced global mutations “jumping genes” more stress -> more jumping
Local hypermutationmutation is place specific
Local hypermutation examplethe bacteria causing meningitis the mutation of the “contingency gene” that controls surface structures
Induced local mutationIncrease in the rate of mutation (by 5-10 x) of genes that help address an adverse situation
Induced local mutation exampleE coli genes to produce amino acids turned off; when no food, turned on – when that gene is faulty, the rate of mutation increases in that gene
Induced regional mutationIn response to specific environments sets of genes increase their mutation rate
Because acquire charateristics are not in amino acid sequence it is in the amounts of proteins as genes are switched on and off
Epigenetic inheritance: Self sustaining loopsCues turns on gene, Protein products on that gene keep the gene turned on
Epigenetic inheritance: Architectural memoryThe impact of prions on protein folding (such as in mad cow disease)

Section 4

Question Answer
The Cambrian explosion: about 545-520M years agomost animals begin, more oxygen and global warming
Many biological contributorsThe development of a CNS, direct movement and an anus
Animals that evolved before the Cambrian do not show classical and operant conditioning
LearningAn ontogenetic adaptation that consists of changes in the behavior of an organism that result from regularities in the environment of that organism
spontaneous recoveryThe mere passage of time following extinction can partially renew the conditioned reflex
Generalizationafter conditioning, stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus will elicit the conditioned
Instrumental/operant responses-actions which function as tools to work some change in the environment
Operant conditioninglearning process by which the consequence of an operant response affects the likelihood that the response will occur in the future.
Thorndike’s Law of EffectResponses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation; responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely
ReinforcementIncreases in the probability of an action in a given situation because other events follow and are contingent on that action
PunishmentDecreases in the probability of an action in a given situation because other events follow and are contingent on that action
Unconditioned reinforcer/Primary reinforcerbiological significance
Conditioned Reinforcer/Secondary reinforcerAcquired (feeder light)
Characteristics of Reinforcers: DeprivationA reinforcer is more effective if the organism has been deprived of it
Characteristics of Reinforcers: ImmediacySooner the better
Characteristics of Reinforcers: SizeLarger the better
Characteristics of Reinforcers: ContingentBetter if only available through the specified contingency
ShapingEach behavior is a class of topographies If you select only certain ones the class will change
repertoire narrowingAnd as aversive control increases, liberty leaves
Baldwin Effectlearning alters the selective environment itself to support further learning, and the trait itself
Food preferences can become ingrained through learning by exposure exposure through placenta, milk consumption, direct consumption, mothers breath and saliva, and mother’s feces
Sexual imprintingarousal to those similar to care-givers
Social Learning and ImitationTo some degree innate in some species (in humans open mouth, tongue thrust, smiling etc)
Koshima macaqu’slearned to wash them in the stream, thus removing sand Became imitated

Section 5

Question Answer
The fitness of an allele isthe weighted average of the relative reproductive success of all the phenotypes it appears in
Alleles with harmful effects for some individuals can persist ifthey benefit others
Inclusive FitnessIndividuals gain fitness benefits if they preferentially aid individuals with whom they share genes in common
Hamilton’s Ruleof Kin Selection To increase inclusive fitness, behave altruistically towards those with whom you share a given gene: kin vs non-kin; close vs distant kin
Free riderstake the benefit of social cooperation, but do not pay the costs
Theory of Reciprocal AltruismIf an individual behaves altruistically but is paid back for their altruistic act at a later date, then both participants will ultimately gain a net benefit
The Group Selection Solution: Policing Self-InterestIf competition between ‘groups’ is sufficiently high, then adaptations that suppress internal conflict may evolve

Section 6

Question Answer
There must be reliable cues availableto what state the environment will be in
Plasticity is useful where the environment isvariable over the long term and regular over the short term
We should only expect plasticity to occur when all conditions are met and the benefits outweigh the costs
Population must have encountereda range of environmental variation over its evolutionary history
Must be different optimal phenotypes in different environments
The mapping betweenthe environment and the optimal phenotype must be consistent
Developmental inductionexposure to a cue early in life induces a permanent change in the phenotype
Filial ImprintingChicks imprint on whatever moving object in their vicinity in the first 36 hours and follow that
Sexual ImprintingLearning what one's mother looks like and then in adulthood seeking out one who looks similar
The more costly social learning is to oneselfthe more advantageous social learning becomes
As social learning becomes more commonit's advantage reduces.
social learning is most useful foraspects of environment that change at an intermediate rate
The Baldwin Effect: Stage onea capacity to learn completes gap in genetically specified system, making beneficial and promoting the spread and level of alleles underlying it
The Baldwin effect:n Stage two (genetic assimilation)subsequent genetic mutations fill the gap in the system and remove the necessity for learning.