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Evolution Exam

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disneykayla's version from 2015-10-25 15:49

Section

Question Answer
Evolution Definition?Change over time
"How" does Evolution occur?Natural Slection
Does Evolution occur at the individual level?No, to entire population
How does the experiment use fruit flies for evolution?Pairs fruit flies that can live the longest before starving to breed long-starving flies
Darwin published first but who pushed him?Wallace
Darwin combined ____ and ____ in his scientific theoryTravel and Observation
Darwin observed what in animals and how does that matter?Beaks and shells; tells us what they ate and where they could live
Mutation is Change in DNA, caused by Mutagens or random, usually causes early death or reduced reproductive success
What is genetic drift?Random changes in allele frequency
What is the founder effect?Founding members of a new population can have different allele frequencies than the original source population
What is the bottleneck effect?Population is whittled down causing loss of gene diversity
How does Migration effect evolutionSharing of genetic info, essential to diversity.
What are the 3 rules for natural selection?Variation for a trait, variation must be inheritable, differential reproductive success
What is survival of the fittest mean?The best to adapt to surroundings, whether it be camo, strength, or speed
What is the Kansas amphibian?Barred Tiger Salamander
How do Galapagos Finches tell us about evolution?During dry seasons their beaks change bc they eat hard seed, and in wet years they're smaller for soft seeds
What is Directional Selection?Producing Cows with higher milk production
What is stabilizing trait?Human birth weight
What is disruptive trait?Selective pressure on fish
What is the definition of a fossil?Evidence of past life
3 time periods?Cenozoic, Mesozoic, Paleozoic
What is the Carboniferous period?During Paleozoic, what you'll find mostly in Kansas; origin of reptiles
Relative vs. Absolute DatingRelative is in order A,B,C guessing but Absolute you use radiometric dating to find specific time
Continental Drift is caused by?Plate Tectonics, broke apart in Mesozoic, in the beginning there was a super continent called pangea (chances ocean current and temp)
Biogeography is?Distribution patterns of living organisms (compare America animals to Australia)
What are Transitional Fossils?Between a hyracotherium and a horse, there were multiple inbetween species
What is the Tiktaalik?Transitional missing link from water to amphibian
What is the Archaeoteryx?Preserved in clay, transitional from reptile to bird
A Homologous bone structure is? Appears different in animals, like our bones compared to a horse, but all close to the same
What is a vestigial structure?Evolutionary leftovers (eye sockets in cave fish)
Analogous structures are?Different starting materials in convergent evolution
Molecular evidence (2)We all share nitrogenous bases and antibiotic resistance
Natural selection allows organisms to respond to....Environmental pressures (industrialization)
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Section

 

Question Answer
Natural Selection shapes what?Behavior
Behavior is what?A response to a stimulus or environmental change or another's action
Three types of BehaviorInstinctual, Learned and Hormonal
Hormonal Behavior exBirds songs change during breeding season
Instinctual Behavior ExFixed Action Patterns, responding to sign stimulus (fish)
Learned BehaviorVaries, application of knowledge from previous experience (pavlov)
Example of learned behavior?Imprinting, no apparent reinforcement
Altruistic BehaviorsAlarm Calls, Advantages, behavior by an individual that increases the fitness of another individual while decreasing the fitness of the actor.
Mating BehaviorsDrives evolution, males vs. females selection and investment
Chemical CommunicationPheromones
Acoustical CommunicationAlarm calls, mating calls
Visual CommunicationFeather color, dancing, dominance displays
Advantages of Group LivingBetter defense, confusion effect, learning from others
Disadvantages of Group LivingCompetition for resources, members on outside, predator risk, disease
Biological ClocksPerform behaviors at certain times, circadian, circannual rhythm, S.A.D. (seasonal affective disorder)
Orientation and Navigation in BiologyMigration, recognizing landmarks, compass sense with the song, stars, and magnetic field
How far do the Arctic Tern Migrate?11,000 miles inbetween winter and summer
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Question Answer
How old is earth? What was on it?4.5 billion years; volcanoes, no oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen
The oldest rocks were found wear and how old are they?Greenland, 3.8 billion
What is the Urey-Miller Experiment?Model of chemicals present on earth, atmosphere was subjected to sparks, was cooled so it would rain and examined it; simulate early earth
Recent discovery is that a molecule part of an RNA can function as a _____Enzyme and they can create reactions for replication
Where do metabolizers come into play?Phospholipids in water form units resembling modern cells, two could have combined.
85% of biological history is what?Aquatic
What was the first colonization of land?Plants and fungi then animals grew and had food
What were the first organisms on earth?Prokaryotes
What are the 3 theories of extinction?Climate, asteroid, hunting pressure
What is an example of pre-zygotic barriersIndividuals are physically unable to mate or the cell can't fertilize an egg
What is an example of post-zygotic barriersMatings produce hybrid individuals that do not survive long after fertilization or can't reproduce
Biological Taxonomy was created by who?Linnaeus
What does Binomial Nomenclature mean?Two-named naming system
How do you type out a species name?Capitalize first letter, all lower case second name, underlined or italicized
What is Allopatric Speciation?When a geographic barrier confine a group of individuals to a population to be reproductively isolated from another group
What is Sympatric Speciation?Rare in animals, common in plants, when they have too many chromosomes and hybrids can propagate themselves
What is the evolutionary tree?A way to map ancestor-descendants relationships, constantly changing
What is punctuated equilibrium?Evolution by "jerks" followed by slowing
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Section

Question Answer
What does Ecological Economics stand for?Value of natural resources
Components of Ecological Economics?View world with people in system, supply and demand, amoral markets
Estimated annual value provided by nature?16-54 trillion annually
How do we define living sustainably?Harvest rates should not exceed regeneration rates
Jobs in relation to sustainability?Green Color Business jobs, degrees in integrated studies, cooperative business ventures
Environmental Issues? (4)Water, Soil, Waste Management, and conservation
What do we need in regards to energy changes?Reduce foreign oil dependence, portfolio of alternative energy sources, reduce political tensions
What plays apart in our preceived risk of the environments?Political Downplay, Media, experience, exaggerated view of abilities, technology
What protects us from environmental risk?FDA, EPA, CDC, Companies and education
What is bioaccumulation?absorbed and accumulated in cells
What is biomagnification?Moves through chain and increases
What is the greatest threat to humans?Pathogenic organisms, viruses, bacteria, parasitic diseases
Infection deaths occur most often in?Children under 5 YO
What are 4 serious diseases?Respiration, malnutrition, STD, and gastrointestinal
How can infections be eliminated?Sanitation, vaccines, nutrition, mosquito nets, education
How much was spent on food and health in 1960?18% food and 5% healthcare
How much was spent on food and health in 2009?9% food, 17% healthcare
Unequal benefits of trade?Least powerful people suffer in global marketplace and less developed countries are suppliers to more developed countries
What is the tragedy of the commons?Resources shared in common, can be degraded due to personal interests, no rules (land has too many cattle)
Successful commons examples?Native American, Main Lobster, community views resource as sustainable
What is the world bank?Funds developing countries on projects, owned by 150 countries but can be destructive to local resources
Walmart SustainabilityLED lighting, green roofs, wind energy, solor panels, donate food and composting
How much of the world lives in extreme poverty?1/5
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