Everyday 5

xerahiri's version from 2015-04-27 17:58

Suppressor vs Inducer

Question Answer Column 3
RASInducerCancer of bladder,lung,colon,pancreas,kidney
N-mycInducerneuroblastoma, small cell carcinoma
ERB-b1InducerSquamous cell carcinoma of lung
ERB-b2InducerBreast & ovarian
TGFaInducerAstrocytoma,Hepatocelluar carcinoma
sisInducerAstrocytoma, Osteosarcoma
WT-1SuppressorWilms Tumor
RBSuppressorRetinoblastoma, Osteosarcoma
DCCSuppressorColon cancer
APC/B-cateninSuppressorGastric, colonic, pancreatic, familial adenomatous polyposis
NF1SuppressorNeuroblastoma, Neurofibromatosis1
BRCA1&2SuppressorBreast & ovarian

Humerus Fracture

Question Answer Column 3
Anterior CircumflexSurgical Neck fractureAnastomoses with Posterior Circumflex
Deep brachialMidshaft fractureRadial Nerve & Deep brachial affected
BrachialSupracondylar fractureBranches into ulnar & radial


Question Answer Column 3
Viridians StreptococciAlpha Hemolytic(Partial green)Optchin Resistant/Bile insoluble
Streptococcus PneumoniaAlpha Hemolytic(Partial green)Optchin Sensitive/Bile soluble/quellung+
Streptococcus PyogenesBeta Hemolytic(Complete)Bacitracin Sensitive/PYR+
Streptococcus AgalactiaeBeta Hemolytic(Complete)Bacitracin Resistant/Camp + /PYR-
EntercocciGamma HemolyticGrow in bile/6.5 NaCl
NonentercoccusGamma hemolyticDo not grow in bile/6.5NaCl do not


Question Answer
Renovascular Hypertension(2nd)↑Renin ↑Aldosterone
Malignant Hypertension(2nd)↑Renin ↑Aldosterone
Renin Secreting Tumor(2nd)↑Renin ↑Aldosterone
Diuretic Use(2nd)↑Renin ↑Aldosterone
Primary Hyperaldosternism(1st)↓Renin ↑Aldosterone
Aldosterone producing tumor(1st)↓Renin ↑Aldosterone
Bilateral Adrenal Hyperplasia(1st)↓Renin ↑Aldosterone
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia↓Renin ↓Aldosterone
Deoxy-corticosterone producing adrenal tumor↓Renin ↓Aldosterone
Cushing Syndrome↓Renin ↓Aldosterone
Exogenous mineralocorticosteroids↓Renin ↓Aldosterone


Question Answer Column 3
Primary SyphilisChancreFound on penis or vulva 1-3 weeks after contact
Secondary SyphilisCondyloma Lata & Maculopapular rash5-10 weeks after chancre resolves
Teritary SyphilisGummas, Subacute Meningoencephalopathie, tabes dorsalis, Ascending aortic aneurysms, Aortic Valve insufficiency
Chancre Ulceration raised, indurated bordersPainless
GummaBenign Indurated granulamatous lesion progressing to white-gray rubbery lesionsPainless
Condyloma LataGray wart like growthsUsually presents with rash
Granuloma InguinaleInguinal swelling, ulcers, abscess fistulasRod shaped intracytoplasmic inclusions(donovan bodies) Klebsiella Granulomatis


Question Answer
Cribiform PlateCN1 Olfactory
Optic canalCN II Opthalamic artery
Superior Orbital fissureCN III
Superior Orbital FissureCN IV
Superior Orbital FissureCN V1
Superior Orbital FissureCN VI
Foramen RotundumCN V2
Foramen ovaleCN V3
Foramen SpinosumMiddle Meningeal artery & vein
Internal acoustic meatusCN VII, VIII
Juglar ForamenCN IX,X,XI

Shoulder Muscles inserting on clavicle

Question Answer
Pectoralis MajorInferior Medial
DeltoidInferior Lateral
SubclaviusInferior Lateral
SternocleidomastoidSuperior Medial
TrapeziusSuperior Lateral
RhomboidOriginate at verteberalbodies and insert into medial border of scapula

Hearing damage

Question Answer
Organ of CortiProlonged exposure of loud noise leads to damage of stereociliated hair cells
Tympanic MembranePerforation, Infection, sudden very loud noises
Middle earOtosclerosis leading to conductive hearing loss
CupulaHouses cell that sense rotation
Auditory nerveTrauma, mass effect, demyleination, nerve based hearing loss Cranial nerve VIII

Lung alveoli Pathology

Question Answer
Acute MI Pulmonary edemaTransudate(plasma only) accumulating in alveoli lumen
Inflammatory StateExudate(plasma,small ions, luekocytes,proteins)
Wegners/Goodpasture/LupusScattered necrosis and alveolar hemorrhage
Chronic Left Heart failureNumerousHemosidrin laden macrophages in alveoli
Interstial Lung DiseaseProminent interstitial infiltration of mononuclear cells
Acute bacterial of aspiration pneumoniaNeutrophils rich fluid
Fat embolism syndromeFat golbules in pulmonary arterioles

Vitelline ducts

Question Answer
Vitelline Fistula/Persistent Vitelline DuctSmall connection between intestinal lumen and outside of the body at the umblicus
Vitelline Fistula/Persistent Vitelline Duct SignMeconium at birth
Meckel DiverticulumMost common
Meckel DiverticulumPartial closure of vitelline duct attached to the illeum
Meckel Diverticulumfibrous band connects the tip with the umblicus
Meckel Diverticulumblind pouch connected to the ileum with a fibrous band seen attaching to the end of pouch to the umblicus
Vitelline SinusPatent portion open at the umblicus
Vitelline duct cystPeripheral portions of vitelline duct (illeum and umblicus) obliterate but the central part remains
Vitelline Duct cyst signConnected with ileum and abdominal wall by fibrous band
Imperforate Anusabnormal development of anorectal structure, fails to pass meconium
Omphalocele moaMidline defect in the abdominal wall due to incomplete closure.
Omphalocele SignDefect covered organs with a peritoneal sac
Umblical HerniasMidline potrusions covered by skin


Question Answer Column 3
Ehlers dhanoElastic SkinDisorder in formation of collagen molecules
MarfanFibrillin Extra cellular glycoproteinLoose Joints, ocular problems, Aortic Aneurysm,dissection, mitral prolapse
Osteogenesis ImperfectaType I CollagenReduced Bone mass, blue sclera, dental problems


Question Answer
MotorHypoglossal VII, palatogloosus muscle by vagus
Sensory Anterior 2/3rdTrigimenal Mandibular Branch
Sensory Posterior 1/3rdGlossopharyngeal IX
Sensory Posterior back of tongueVagus
Taste AnteriorFacial Chorda Tympani VIII
Taste PosteriorGlosspharyngeal IX
Taste Posterior BackVagus IX
Terminal SulcusPosterior and Anterior


Question Answer
Tibial muscleGastronemius, soleus, plantaris(Tiptoe)
Tibial flexionPlantar , Toe(Flexor digitorium & hallucis longus)
Tibial Nerve injuryDorsiflexed and everted presentation
Saphenous NerveMedial leg skin
Common peroneal branch Superficial peroneal nerveMedial aspect of foot
Common peroneal branch Deep peroneal nerveSking between great toe and 2nd
Femoral NerveAnterior thigh
Location of common peroneal nerve injury?Lateral leg/Neck of fibula
Superficial peroneal InjuryCant evert and no sensory dorsum of foot
Foot dropCommon peroneals deep branch nerve


Question Answer
IL-1Fever, shock, Acute phase reactants
IL-1Neutrophil & Macrophage migration
IL-2Nkcells & macrophage
IL-2B cell growth, T cell activation & proliferation
IL-3Hematopoiesis, t cells
IL-4Th2 differentiation
IL-4IgE switching
IL-4B cell growth
IL-5IgA switching
IL-5Differentiation of eosinophils
IL-6Macrophages, osteoclast activity
IL-6Acute phase reactants & fever
IL-6T & B cell growth
IL-8Macrophages/Tcells, Neutrophil activation & chemotaxis
IL-10Th2 & decrease Th1 differentiation
IL-10Decrease cell mediated immunity
IL-10Bcell function
IL-12Macrophages/ Th1 differentiation
IL-12Natural Killer cell & cd8+ t cell activity


Question Answer
DNA & RNA SynthesisFlucytosine
Cell wallCaspofungin
Cell membrane by binding to ergosterolAmphotericn B
Cell membrane by binding to Ergosterol toxicNystatin
Cell membrane by inhibiting synthesis of ergosterolAZOLES
Cell membrane by inhibiting synthesis of ergosterol by inhibting enzyme squalene 2-3 epoxidaseTerbinafine
Binds microtubules & inhibits mitosisGriseofulvin

Hypothalemic Nuclei Function

Question Answer
VentromedialDestruction leads to hyperphagia. Stimulated by leptin
LateralDestruction leads to Anorexia. Inhibited by leptin
AnteriorDestruction leads to hyperthermia
PosteriorDestruction leads to hypothermia
ArcuateSecretion of dopamine and HGRH
ParaventricularADH, CRH, Oxytocin, TRH
SuprachiasmaticCircadian and pineal gland


Question Answer
Invasive capsular sheets of uniform cells forming small folliclesFollicular Thyroid Carcinoma
Pleomorphic Giant cell nests with occasional multinucleated cellsAnaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma
Pleomorphic cells including Irregular Giant cells and biphasic spindle cellsAnaplastic Thyroid Cytology
Extra cellular deposits of amyloid with congo red stainingMedullary Thyroid Carcinoma
Polygonal to spindle shaped with slightly glanular cytoplasm that stains for calcitonin Medullary Thyroid Cytology
Branching structures with interspersed calcified bodiesPapillary Thyroid Carcinoma
"Orphan Annie eye" Clusters of overlapping cells with large nuclei containing sparse fine dispersed chromatin / Numerous intranuclear inclusion bodies and groove's are also seenPapillary Thyroid Cytology
Most common thyroid cancerPapillary Thyroid Cancer


Question Answer
Twice DailyNPH(long)
Once DailyGlargine & Detemir(Long)
2-4hrsRegular(IV DK - SHORT)
Post meal 45-75minsLispro, Aspart, Glulisine

Leg Nerve Injuries

Question Answer
ObturatorThigh Adduction Defect
FemoralFlexion of thigh and Extension of knee Defect
Common PeronealFoot eversion"Peroneus longus & Brevis" , Dorsiflexion"tibialis anterior", Tow Extension, "Steppage gait" injured foot slapping and lifted higher Defect
TibialFoot Inversion, Plantarflexion, Toe flexion Defect
Super GlutealThigh Abduction Defect
Inferior GlutealThigh Extension Defect
Sural NervePure sensory Defect of Posterolateral leg and lateral foot

Lysosomal Storage Disease

Question Answer Column 3 Column 4
DiseasePresentationEnzyme DeficientKEY
PompesCardiomegaly, Muscle Hypotonia, Normal Blood SugarAcid a-glucosidasePolysaccharide Accumulation within Lysosomes
McArdlesWeakness & Fatigue with exerciseMuscle Glycogen PhosphorylaseHigh Glycogen in muscle & no lactate increase
Von Gierke DiseaseHepatomegaly, Lactic acidosis, Hyeruricemia & lipidemiaGlucose 6 phosphataseONLY in liver


Question Answer
Iron StoresFerritin
Total Iron Binding CapacityTransferin
Iron DeficencyFerritin Low & Transferin High TIBC High

Meningtis G+

Question Answer
G+ Cocci Lancet Streptcoccus Pneumoniea (Most common Adults)
G+ Cocci ClusterStaph Aureus (Skull Injury)
G+ Cocci ChainsStrep Agalactiae(Neonatal)
G+ RodsListeria Monocytogenes (Neonatal, Immunocompromised)

Meningitis G-

Question Answer
G- Cocci Bean shapedNeisseria Meningitis (2nd Adult)
G- RodsE.Coli
G- CoccobacilliH.Influenza


Question Answer Column 3
Splice Site Mutation156 amino acids rather than 129 amino acids for proteinLarger & altered function but preserved immune reactivity
Silent MutationNo changes in formed proteinsFunctional & Same size
Missense mutationChange in the code through base situation resulting in amino acid changesame size & dysfunctional
Frame shift mutationDeletion of a single nucelotide or insertion of pairs which are not a multiple of threeshorter & Dysfunctional
Nonsense mutationIntroduce a stop codon within a gene sequenceshort & dysfunctional