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Everyday 2 Jr

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poxidicu's version from 2016-06-03 03:57

Catechola

Question Answer
Phenylanine to TyrosinePhenylanine Hydroxylase
Tyrosine to DopaTyrosine Hydroxylase
Dopa to DopamineDopa decarboxylase (Vit b6)
Dopamine to Norepinephrine Dopamine B hydroxylase (carbidopa & Vit C)
Norepinephrine to EpinephrinePNMT (SAM)
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Ribs

Question Answer
12RIBKidney (BackPain)
9,10,11Spleen (Posteriorsuperior)
Left ovary/testisLGV, LRV, IVC
Right ovary/testisRGV, IVC
OvarySimple Cuboidal
FallopianCiliatedSimple Columnar
UterusPseudostratified tubular glands simple columnar
EndocervixSimple Columnar
EctocervixStratified Squamous
VaginaNonkeratinized Stratified Squamous
ErectionPelvic Nerve
EmissionHypogastric Nerve
EjaculationPudendal Nerve
MenustrationEstrogen-> LH Surge-> Ovulation-> Progesterone(Corpusluteum)-> Menstruation
S1&S2Anklejerk
l3&l4KneeJerk
S2-S4Contration of Anal Sphinctor
HypothenarUlnar "Hook of Hamate"
Biceps ReflexMusculocutaneous nerve -> Lateral cutaneous nerve of Lateral forearm
Non Ciliated columunar epithelial cells GOBLET cellsBarrets
PUDGastroduodenal Artery(Posterior) ↓meal
GUDLeftgastric Artery(Lesser Antrum) ↑Meal
CeliacDuodenum
SprueJegunum Ileum
Cardinal Ligament/Transverse Cervical LigamentUterineArtery(Hysterectomy)
Susponsary Ligament aka InfundibulopelvicOvarian Artery(Ovary mass)
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Hiv

Question Answer
PolSynthezies DNA through the use of genomic RNA.
IntegraseIntegrates Viral DNA into cellular DNA
ProteaseCleaves several viral precursor proteins.
Env geneOnly one glycosylated to that gp160
Nef geneEnhance viral replication through down regulation of CD 4 and MHC class I expression
Rev geneFaciliates transport of unspliced viral transcripts out of the nucleus
Tat geneEncodes a protein that transcriptionally activates other viral genes. (Virulence of HIV)
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Gas

Question Answer
Amount saturate blood SMALLNO Poorly Soluble
Amount saturate blood HIGHHalothane Highly Soluble
Rise in Partial pressure in blood RAPIDNO Poorly Soluble
Rise in Partial Pressure in Blood SLOWHalothane Highly Soluble
Equilibration brain RAPIDNO Poorly Soluble
Equilibration brain SLOWHalothane Highly Soluble
Onset of Action FASTNO Poorly Soluble
Onset of Action SLOWHalothane Highly Soluble
Redistribuiton to Skeletal & AdiposeThiopental
COPDHypoxia drives
ComaOxygen to COPD pts
Normal peoplePCO2 drives
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GI PATH

Question Answer
Adeno carcinomaProtuberant Mass/ Dysplastic mucosal cells with gland formation
CytomegalovirusMultiple ulcers & Mucosal Erosions/ Cytomegalic cells with inclusion bodies
CryptosporidiumNonulcerative Inflammation / Basophillic clusters seen on the surface of intestinal mucosal cells
Entamoeba HistolyticaNumerous Discrete flask shaped ulcerative lesions / Trophozoitescontaining red blood cells
Kaposi SarcomaReddish violet flat maculopapular lesions or hemmorrhagic nodules / Spindle Shaped tumor cells with small vessel proliferation
Ulcerative ColitisContiguous area of erythematous friable, granular mucosa with pseudopolyps / Inflammatory infiltrate involving the mucosa & submucosa with crypt abcesses
Oral & IV B12 ↑EXCRETIONDietary B12 Deficiency
Oral & IV B12 ↓EXCRETIONAbsorption Problem(Intrinsic vs Malabsorption)
B12 + IF ↑ExcretionIntrinsic Factor Deficiency
B12 + IF ↓ExcretionMalabsorption = Pancreatic Insufficency, Ileal Disease or Bacterial overgrowth
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Rapid

Question Answer
Insulin DeficiencyHyperkalemia
Badernergic antagonistHyperkalemia
Acidosis, severe exerciseHyperkalemia
HyperosmilarityHyperkalemia
DigitalisHyperkalemia
Cell lysisHyperkalemia
InsulinHypokalemia
Badernergic agonistHypokalemia
AlkalosisHypokalemia
HypoosmlarityHypokalemia
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Rapid
Question Answer
Acute Poststreptococcal GlomerulonephritisNephritic
RPGNNephritic
Berger Iga NephropathyNephritic
Alport SyndromeNephritic
Focal segmental glomerulonephritisNephrotic
Membranous GlomerulonephritisNephrotic
Minimal ChangeNephrotic
AmyloidosisNephrotic
Diabetic GlomerulonephropathyNephrotic
Diffuse Proliferative GlomerulonephritisBoth
Membrano-proliferative GlomerulonephritisBoth
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Acid Base

Question Answer Column 3
Metabolic Acidosis↓pH, ↓PCo2, ↓HCO3, Hyperventilation(Anion Gap= Na-(CL+HCO3) = ↑mudpiles(Methanol, Uremia, DK, Propylene, Iron, Lactic acidosis, Ethylene, Salicylates). Normal 8-12 (Acetazolamide, Spirnolactone, Saline Infusion, Diarrhea, Addison)
Metabolic Alkalosis↑pH, ↑PCo2, ↑HCO3, HypoventilationLoop Diuritics, Vomiting, Antacid use, Hyperaldosteroism
Respiratory Acidosis↓pH, ↑PCo2, ↑HCO3, ↑Renal HCO3 absorptionHypoventilation, COPD, Acute lung disease, Airway obstruction
Respiratory Alkalosis↑pH, ↓PCo2, ↓HCO3, ↓Renal HCO3 reabsorptionHyperventilation, Hysteria, High Altitude(hypoxemia), Pulmonary embolism
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Kidney Shit

Question Answer
ProstaglandinsDilate afferent - ↑RPF, ↑GFR, -FF (NSAIDS-)
Nsaids inhibitAfferent dilation
Ace inhibitEfferent constriction
Angiotensin IIConstrict Efferent - ↓RPF, ↑GFR, ↑FF (ACEinhib -)
Renal Artery StenosisACE BAD! because of dilation of efferent
Afferent Constriction↓RPF, ↓GFR, -FF
↑Plasma Concentration-RPF, ↓GFR, ↓FF
↓Plasma Concentration-RPF, ↑GFR, ↑FF
Constriction of ureter-RPF, ↓GFR, ↓FF (River Flooded)
Proximal tubulePTH(converts 25oh-active 1,25), ATII, Most Na reabsorbed, ANP(Sodium & H2o loss)
Thin DescendingMost concentrated Urine
Thick AscendingThiazides, AngiotensinII, PTH,NO water
Glomuerlus water permeabiltyYES
PCT water permeabilityYes
Decending LHYES
Early distal convoluted tubule waterYES
Distal convoluted tubulePTH, ATTII, middle sodium reabsorption
Collecting TubulesAldosterone, ADH, Least sodium absorbed
Redblood cell castsIschemia, Malignant Hypertension, Glomerulonephritis
Whiteblood cell castsTubulointerstital inflammaation, acute pyelonephritis, transplant rejection
GranularMuddy brown - acute tubular necrosis
Waxy castsCRF
FocalFew glomerulI (fOCAL sEGMENTAL gLOMERULOSCLEROSIS)
DiffuseAll glomeruli ( dIFFUSE pROLIFERATIVE gLOMERULONEPHRITIS
ProliferativeHypercellular Glomeruli
MembranousThicking of GBM (mEBRANOUS gLOMERULONEPHRITIS)
Ca kidney stonesMost common kidney stones. Calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, or both. From conditions that cause hypercalcemia (cancer, ↑ PTH, ↑ vitamIn D, milk-alkali syndrome) can lead to hypercalciuria and stone. Tend to recur. Tx thiazides and citrate
Ca-oxalate stonesppt @ ↓ pH
Ethylene glycol or vitamin C abuse
Ammonium magnesium phosphate (struvite) kidney stones2nd most common kidney stone. Caused by infection with urease-positive bugs (Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella ). Can form staghorn calculi that can be a nidus for UTls.
Uric acid stonesassociation with hyperuricemia (gout). Often seen as a result of diseases with ↑ cell turnover, such a leukemia and myeloproliferative disorders. RadiolUcent, ppt in acidic pH
Cystine kidney stonesMost often secondary to cystinuria. Hexagonal shape. Faintly radiopaque, ppt in acidic pH. Treat with alkalinzation of urine
Acute pyelonephritisAffects cortex with relative sparing of glomeruli/vessels. WhIte cell casts in urine are classic. Presents with fever, CVA tenderness, nausea, and vomiting
neutrophilic infiltrate
Acute pyelonephritis bugsE.coli(fimbriae, pili), Proteus (urea splitter), Klebsiella (urea splitter), Enterococcus faecalis (- on nitrite dipstick)
Drug-induced interstitial nephritisAcute interstitial renal inflammation. Pyuria (typically eoslnophlls) and azotemia occuring 1- 2 weeks after admin. Associated with fever, rash, hematuria, and CVA tenderness. Drugs (e.g., diuretics, NSAIDs, penicillin derivatlves, sullfonamides, rifampin) act as haptens, Inducing hypersensitivity
Diffuse cortical necrosisAcute generalized infarction of cortices. Likely due to Vasospam and DIC. Associated with obstetric catastrophes (e.g., abruptio placentae) and septic shock.
Acute tubular necrosisMost common cause of acute renal failure in hospItal. Self-reverslble, but fatal if left untreated (provide supportive dialysis). Associated with renal ischemia (e.g., shock, sepsis), crush injury (myoglobulinuria), toxins. Death during initial oliguric phase. Loss of cell polarity, epithelial cell detachment, necrosis granular ("muddy brown") casts
Renal papillary necrosisSloughing of renal papillae → gross hematuria, proteinuria. May be triggered by recent infection or immune stimulus.
Associated with :1. Diabetes mellitus 2. Acute pyelonephritis 3. Chronic phenacetin use (acetaminophen is phenacetin derivative) 4. Sickle cell anemia
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Brain

Question Answer
12-48HRSRed Neurons
24-72HRSNecrosis+Neutrophils
3-5 DaysMacrophages/Microglia
1-2 WeeksReactive Gliosis +Vascular Proliferation Astrocytes
>2 WeeksGlial Scar
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Cranial Nerves

Question Answer
1,2optic brain
3,4midbrain
5678pons
9101112Medulla Oblangota
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Seizures

Question Answer
MyclonicSudden brief sever muscle contraction Epilepsy & Creutzfeldt
BradyKinesiaSlow Movement Parkinsons
ChoreaInvoluntary muscle activity from one muscle group to another Huntington
DystoniaPeriodic involuntary muscle contractions into painful abnormal movements or posture. Spasmodic Torticollis
BlepharospasmForcible closure of eye lids
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Headache

Question Answer Column 3 Column 4 Column 5
MigraineUnilateral4-72hrsPulsating, nausea, Photophobia, phonophobia CNVProponolol, NSAIDS, Sumatriptan(acute)
ClusterUnilateralRepetitive short periorbital painIpsilateral lacrimation, rhinorrhea, horners syndrome, MALESOxygen
TensionBilateral>30 mins steady painNot aggrevated by light or noiseStress
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Neurocutaneous

Question Answer Column 3
OslerWeberRendu SyndromeTelangiectasis in skin,mucousmembranes lips, Repiratory Tract, GI, UrinaryEpistaxis, Gi bleeding and hematuria
SturgeWeberPort wine stains, v1 distribution, leptomeningeal angiomas, pheochromocytomasGlaucoma, seizures, hemiparesis, mentral retardation
Tram track calcifications
Tuberous SclerosisHamartomas, Adenoma sebaceum, Mitral regurg, Ashleaf spots, RhabdomyomaAD, Mental retardation, Angiomyolipoma, Seizures
Neurofibramatosis Type I
(Von Recklinghausen disease
Cafe-au-lait, Lischnodules(iris), opticgliomas, pheochromocytoma, 100%penetrantMutated NF1 (17)
VHLPort wine stains, v1 distribution, leptomeningeal angiomas, RENAL CYSTSDifferential between SturgeWeberSyndrome
Paraaminobenzoic acidUVBReally Bad
AvobenzoneUVA I & UVA IIN/A
Zinc oxideUBV, UVA I, UVA IIN/A
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Sickle VS Beta

Question Answer Column 3 Column 4 Column 5
ConditionHbAHbA2HbFHbS
Normal95%-98%2.5%<1%Absent
Beta MinorLowHighNear NormalAbsent
Beta MajorAbsentSuper HighSuper HighAbsent
Sickle TraitSuper LowNormalNormalHigh
Sickle AnemiaAbsentNormalSuper High Super High
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Location of tumor

Question Answer Column 3
NF2Cerebellopontine angle-> between cerebellum and lateral ponsTinnuitis & Hearing loss
Germ cell tumorsPineal and suprasellar region
MeningomasLateral hemispheric fissure and in the parasagittal aspect of the brainLower limb sensory deficit & hemineglect
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Heart

Question Answer
1d-1wInflammation
1w-1mGranulation
>1mScar
0-4hrMinimal Change
4-12hrEarly Coagulation necrosis, edema, hemorhage, wavy Fibers
12-24hrCoagulation Necrosis and marginal contraction band necrosis (Arrythemia)
1-5dayCoagulation Necrosis and Neutrophilic infiltrate(Pericarditis)
5-10dayMacrophage phagocytosis of dead cells
10-14dayGranulation tissue and neovascularization
>2wkCollagen Depostion/ Scar Formation
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Blood Mutations

Question Answer
Valine with phenylalaninePolycythemia Vera
Histidine to SerineHbF
Glutamate 2 ValineSickle Cell
GlutamicAcid 2 LysineHbC
Glycine with aspartateCF
DiabetesHbA1c
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RAPID

Question Answer
HyperplasiaReversible
MetaplasiaReversible
DysplasiaReversible
AnaplasiaIrreversible
NeoplasiaIrreversible
DesmoplasiaIrreversible
Not iNvolvedCarcinoma in SITU
Collagenases/Hydrolases(Metalloproteinases)Invasive
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Vocabulary

Question Answer
TransferencePt projects his feeling about someone important onto Doctor
CountertransferenceDoctor projects someoneimportant onto Pt
ActingoutUnacceptable feeling and thoughts are expressed through actions.
DissociationChange personality, memory and motor behavior everything to avoid emotional stress
DisplacementFeelings are transferred to some neutral person or OBJECT
ProjectionMan wants to fuck another lady but he blames his loving wife of fucking another man
FixationREMAINING at a childish level of development
Isolation of AffectSaying a tragic event in DETAIL with NO emotions
FantasyMother thinks her son will be a major league baseball player even after a leg amputation
RationalizationAlways has an excuse for something
Reaction FormationAn ISIS fighter who hates christians builds churches in the local community
RegressionNathan
RepressionActing Like nothing ever happened between me n my exs
SplittingMy dad has a splitting personality
AltruismAvoid negative feelings by helping others.
SublimationMayweather beat growing up- takes it out on his opponents
SuppressionIgnoring the upcoming exam till the night before exam
DysthymicFatigue long time, unhappy, no suicidal thoughts, No drug use.
AkathisiaInability to sit still and restlessness
PassiveaggressionDiabetic Pt & dr
ConversionStressor causes unconsious neurologic symptoms
HypochondrasisFear of having a serious illness
Somatization DisorderVariety of complaints in multiple organs
HallucinationsSeeing a light that is not there
IllusionSeeing an actual light and thinking it is SUN
DelusionThinking the water is STILL contaminated EVEN when the tests show Negative
Cluster AWeird "Paranoid, SchizoiD, SchizoTypal" = Family is Schizophrenia
Cluster BWild "AntiSOCIal, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic" = Family is Mood disorder and substance abuse
Cluster CWorried "Avoidant, OCD, Dependent" = Family is Anxiety
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Kidney Embryo

Question Answer
PronephrosRegresses
MesonephrosWolffian Ducts, Male Reproductive System, Ductus Deferens, Epididyms,Female Regresses, Female Vestigal Gartners Ducts
MetanephrosTrue kidney
Metanephros(Ureteric Bud)Collecting System/ Major and Minor Calyces/ Collecting Tubules & Ducts/ Renal Pelvis/ Ureters
Metanephros(Blastema/Mesoderm)Glomeruli/ Bowmans Capsule/ Proximal Tubules/ Loop of henle/ Distal convoluted tubules
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