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Eukaryotes

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icer215's version from 2016-08-20 02:26

Section 1

Question Answer
Histonesare responsible for condensing and protecting chromosomal DNA wound around histone octamers.
non-histone chromosomal proteinsnon-histone chromosomal proteins that regulate and catalyze.
Telomeres are the ends of a chromosome that become degraded causing aging.
Centromeres are either at the center between the short and long arm.
Sister chromatidsare attached at the centromere following replication. During mitosis, spindle fibers are attached at the centromere and pulls the sister chromatids apart (during telophase)
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Question Answer
Transcription Regulation (proteins) bind to enhancers (increase) or silencers (decrease) on DNA to affect the amount of transcription.
Transcription factorscan be far away from the promoter gene that it effects and can lay in either direction (upstream/downstream).
Intermediate proteins cause DNA to loop back on itself so the transcription factor can make contact with the promoter.
Operons are rare and attenuation is not present in eukaryotes.
DNA-binding proteins and transcription factors bind to DNA.
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Section 2

Question Answer
DNA-binding domains include helix-turn-helix (HTH, green in top image below), zinc finger (blue in middle image) and basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP, blue in bottom image).
Cancer cells don't age because they protect their genetic information by preventing telomeres from degrading, they grow uncontrolled, dividing due to failure to respond to cellular controls.
C. cells avoid apoptosis that normally occurs during extensive DNA damage. stimulate angiogenesis causing new blood vessels to grow nourishing the cancer cell. metastasize (begin growing in new locations) like Starbucks.
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Question Answer
Oncogenescause cancer when activated, mostly by speeding up cell division.start as proto-oncognes and are harmless until triggered
Viruses can cause cancer
Tumor suppressorgenes slow down or control cell division. If the suppressor fails to function, cancer occurs.
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Question Answer
Exons are the important information in RNA
Introns are not needed (so they are removed by a spliceosome in RNA splicing)
5' caps and 3' poly-A tails are added after transcription to protect the RNA from breaking down.
Proteins binding near the GU sequence, causes a loop, a spliceosome cleaves the intron at the 5' GU sequence (forming a lariat at the AG branch site), the 3' end of the intron is cleaved at the AG sequence and the two exons are ligated together.
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Section 3