Essential Trace Ions part 2

dexeroso's version from 2017-06-18 17:06

Section 1

Question Answer
Trivalent Chromium:btained by reducing dichromates in acid – Most stable form, but is not as bioavailable as hexavalent form.
Glucose Tolerance Factor• Chromium deficiency is marked by glucose tolerance impartment, glycosuria, and elevations in insulin serum • Chromium has an effect on glucose metabolism in humans; however, it is no longer believed to be because of a substance called the GTF as GTF activity has now been found to be independent of chromium content
Molybdenum• Important component of plant growth, importance in humans not yet conclusively proven. • Molybdenum enzymes play an important role in catalyzing redox reactions that characteristically involve oxygen transfer
SeleniumFactor 3 in preventing liver necrosis in rats
SeleniumMay be of therapeutic value in the treatment of kwashiorkor
SeleniumOral administration can produce intestinal irritation and paralysis of the small blood vessels and blood-forming organs.
sulfurTx of certain dermatoses
Keshan diseasea type of juvenile cardiomyopathy found in places with low Se intake.
Inorganic Se. Organic Se is more toxic than
Selenium Disulfide(Selsun Cream ®)
Selenium Sulfide, USPComponent of shampoo (2.5%) used in treating seborrheic dermatitis (dandruff)

Section 2

Question Answer
Pyrolusite (MnO2) – principal manganese oreManganese • Occurrence
PermanganatesPowerful OA – 0.02 to 0.1 %: used in urethral injections – Large doses: very severe gastro-enteritis

Section 3

Question Answer
Iodine • Heaviest non-metallic element • Chemical properties resemble those of chlorine and bromine. • Can be decolorized by strong OA, thus it functions as RA.
Internal(iodine) Essential for the synthesis of two hormones produced by the thyroid gland, triiodotyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)
Goiter: A swelling of the thyroid gland as a response to iodine deficiency.
Lugol’s SolutionStrong Iodine Solution
Boulton’s SolutionPhenolated Iodine Solution
Povidone-Iodine SolutionBetadine, Isodine, Polyvinylpyrrolidone- Iodine Complex • Antiseptic – Intravaginal – Topical
Sodium Iodide• PO as a source of iodine • Some value in the treatment of herpes zoster opthalmicus • Preferable to KI for application to tissues because it is better tolerated.