Essential and Nonessential Trace Ions

dexeroso's version from 2017-06-18 17:01

Section 1

Question Answer
Essentialitylement results in adverse effects that are reversed upon resupply.
Iron (Fe)Occurrence – Necessary constituent of blood (hemoglobin) and oxidases
Hematite Red Oxide
Magnetite Black Magnetic Oxide
LimoniteBrown Hydrated oxide
Iron pyriteFools Gold

Section 2

Question Answer
Metallic Iron:Very active chemically. – Rusting is probably due to impurities. – CO2 stimulates the formation of hydrated ferric oxide (Ferric hydroxide or rust)
Ferrous ion:GreenFerrous ion:Hydrated
Ferrous ion:ColorishFerrous ion:Anhydrous
Yellow prussiate of potashpotassium ferrocyanide
Red prussiate of potashPotassium Ferricynaide
Ferric ion:• Brown or yellow in color • Prone to hydrolysis • Precipitated by alkali hydroxides and ammonia (brown gelatinous ferric hydroxide)
Prussian Blue Precipitated by potassium ferrocyanide to form intense blue precipitate
Turnbulls BLuePotassium ferricyanide + ferrous ion
IronSite of absorption: Acidic duodenal section of GIT • Excretion: sloughing off of cells, hemorrhage, menstruation (loss is about 1 mg daily)
Ferritin iron carrying protein
Transferriniron binding protein

Section 3

Question Answer
Low hemoglobin, small size cellsSecondary Anemia:Hypochromic microcytic anemia
– Blood cells are larger than normal – Not secondary to other disease, but due to diseased condition of the blood-making portions of the body. – Tx:vitamin B12Primary Anemia:MacrocyticAnemia

Section 4

Question Answer
HematopoieticsAid in the production of blood cells
Hematinics Increase hemoglobin content

Section 5

Question Answer
Ferrous FumarateHematinic
Ferrous Gluconate• Fergon • Less irritating to GIT
Ferrous Sulfate• Hematinic • Feosol ® • Ferrous ammonium sulfateOxidizes readily upon exposure to air, the crystals of which become coated with brownish yellow basic ferric sulfate.
Ferrous ammonium sulfateMohr's salt
Iron Dextran Injection • Fe(OH)2(colloid) + DextranIs a sterile, colloidal solution of Ferric Hydroxide in complex with partially hydrolyzed _Dextran__ of low MW, in Water for Injection.
Iron Sorbitex InjectionSterile solution of complex iron, _sorbitol_and __citric acid_that is stabilized with the aid of dextrin and excess sorbitol.
Iron Sucrose InjectionSterile colloidal solution of _Ferric Hydroxide_ complex with _Sucrose_ in Water for Injection

Section 6

Question Answer
redCopper: reflected light
greenishCopper: Transmitted light
– Red cuprous – Black cupricTwo oxides:Copper
whiteAll of the cuprous compounds are _______
blackwhen freshly prepared with the exception of the sulfide (_______)
redwhen freshly prepared with the exception of the oxide (_______)
CupricMost are blue in color, some are greenish- blue • Actually exists with 4 moles of water: Cu(H2O)42+

Section 7

Question Answer
Fe2+ + Cu↓Cu2+ -> Fe
Cu(OH)2↓ + 2NH4+Cu2+ + 2NH4OH
[Cu(NH3)4](OH)2 + 4OH-]Cu(OH)2↓ + 4NH4OH
Cu2[Fe(CN)6]↓ + 4K+2Cu2+ + K4[Fe(CN)6]
no reaction]Cu2[Fe(CN)6]↓ + HCl

Section 8

Question Answer
Wilson's Disease – Hepatolenticular degeneration – Familial inability to regulate copper balance with the consequence that toxic amounts of copper are deposited in various tissues.
Cupric Sulfate (CuSO4.5H2O)Blue vitriol or blue stone
Cupric Sulfate (CuSO4.5H2O)Used in the determination of reducing sugars – Fehling’s Solution and Benedict’s Solution (difference?) – Emetic – stimulates the vomiting reflex center – Phosphorus poisoning (chemical reaction?) – Fungicidal/Algaecide (Bordeux Mixture) – swimming pools, usually in conjunction with chlorine – Astringent and irritant
Flame test with cobalt salt:Rinmann's green(Cobalt zincate)

Section 9

Question Answer
Used in the determination of reducing sugars – Fehling’s Solution and Benedict’s Solution (difference?) – Emetic – stimulates the vomiting reflex center – Phosphorus poisoning (chemical reaction?) – Fungicidal/Algaecide (Bordeux Mixture) – swimming pools, usually in conjunction with chlorine – Astringent and irritantBrass (Alloy of copper and Zinc)
ZnS Zinc Blende
Calamine:used for the official product and also for impure naturally occurring zinc carbonate.
Ammonium sulfide Zinc Sulfide:White sulfide
Fixed alkali White flocculent Zinc hydroxide (amphoteric)

Section 10

Question Answer
ZnS↓ + 2H+(white)Zn2+ + H2S
no reaction(insoluble)ZnS↓ + CH3COOH
ZnCl2 + H2S(Dissolve)]ZnS↓ + 2HCl
ZnS↓ + 2NH4+Zn2+ + 2NH4S
K2Zn3[Fe(CN)6]2↓ + 6K(white ppt)3Zn2+ + 2K4[Fe(CN)6]
no reaction(ins)K2Zn3[Fe(CN)6]2↓+ HC
Zn• Metal present in insulin • Highest concentration in tests, hair and nails, none, and pigmented tissues of eye • Essential part of an enzyme structure in the RBC, gastric mucosa, and renal cortex • Involved in the acceleration of acid-base balance by the kidney.
exhibits astringent/mild antiseptic and corrosive properties.
atherosclerosisDeficiency: linked to
copper deficiencyToxicity: generally manifests as
Zinc Chloride (ZnCl2)Used when a more powerful escharotic action is needed such as in the treatment of growths and gangrenous sores. • Used as mouth washes to impart antiseptic and astringent properties. • Desensitizer of dentin (topically)
Zinc Oxide (ZnO)zinc white
Zinc Oxide (ZnO)– Dermatology: mild astringent and weak antiseptic action – Astringent and protectant – Zinc Oxide ointment (dusting powder) • Tx of eczema, impetigo, ringworm, varicose ulcers, pruritus and psoriasis.
Zinc Peroxide, ZnO2Has deodorizing properties and used as dusting powder • Used in tx of wounds, human bites, deep surgical wounds, ringworm and dermatophytosis
Zinc StearateConsists chiefly of variable proportions of zinc stearate and zinc palmitate • Mildly antiseptic and astringent • Used to treat various types of skin diseases.
Zinc Sulfate (ZnSO4.7H2O)Stable and soluble • Emetic • Official use: Ophthalmic astringent
White Lotion (ZnS)Preparation from Sulfurated Potash and ZnSO4