Essay es3

eshapeesha's version from 2016-04-27 18:14


Question Answer
Which of Diamond’s ultimate factors do you think was most responsible for why certain peoples conquered others?geography was the most responsible for why certain peoples conquered others because it influenced the 2 other ultimate factors, domesticable animals and domesticable plants. it therefore played a role in determining which of the proximate factors applied to places. good geography allowed for easy spread of ideas and crops, writing from sumerians, gunpowder from china, technology, food surplus and storage, dense civilizations, free time, epidemics, and milk meat plowing and leather.


Question Answer
How is human density related to domestication of plants and animals Human density was able to increase as a result of domestication of plants bc it allowed for more calories for acre, and domestic animals increase the yield of crops through labor and manure.
4 advantages from domestication of large animalsDomestication of animals also allowed for furnish of meat, milk, fertilizer, pulling plows, transportation, and clothing.
how is human density related to domestication of plants and animalsAn agricultural lifestyle allowed people to move less, mothers could have several children at the same time even if they weren't old enough to walk on their own. Hunter gatherers were forced to space children 4 years apart.
maori vs moriori both developed from the same ancestral society but along very different lines. the moriori are less developed and from the chatham islands. they were isolated, hunter gatherers, simple tech and weapons, inexperienced at war, lack strong leadership or organization. the maori were more developed and from new zealand. they engaged in ferocious wars, more advanced tech and weapons, strong leadership. the maori conquered the moriori and forced them into slavery and killed those who objected. moriori could've fought back but they believed in resolving conflict peacefully. maori also cooked and ate the slaughtered bodies. this exemplifies how diversification resulted from different environmental factors on states.
collision at cajamarcaincan emperor atahuallpa and spanish conquistafor pizarro first encountered at cajamarca. pizarro captured atahuallpa and forced him to give up his riches in exchange for a promise to be freed, atahuallpa agrees and is killed anyway. the incas viewed atahuallpa as the sun god, leaving them vulnerable. .
why did cajamarca go how it didpizarro won bc horses, steel armor, swords, smallpox, europeans literate and understand centralized politics. proximate factors- military tech based on guns, steel weapons, and horses, infectious diseases endemic in eurasia, european maritime technology, cenralized political organization of european states, and writing/literacy.
In which ways did Eurasia have advantages over other continents, and how did these lead to the ultimate development of guns, germs and steel?eurasia had protection against diseases because they were the first to domesticate animals which allowed for sedentary society which turned into centralized gov which allowed for writing and literacy. animals in eurasia had ideal characteristics for domestication inc herbivorous animals, fast growth rate, ability to breed in captivity, nice disposition, have a social structure involving herds, hierarchy, and overlapping home ranges with other herds. had an east west axis and constant temperate zone allowing for further and more frequent distribution of ideas and tech,
ideal characteristics for domestication of large animalsinc herbivorous animals, fast growth rate, ability to breed in captivity, nice disposition, have a social structure involving herds, hierarchy, and overlapping home ranges with other herds.
major disadvantages of americaswidespread dependence on protein poor corn, hand planting instead of sowing, tilling by hand instead of animals plowing more tough soil, animal manure for fertility.
proximate factors behind eurasia's conquest of americasgerms- eruopeans immune to diseases bc had animals for long time, tech- main tools in eurasia were metals liek copper bronze and iron while in the americas they were using stone, wood, and bone. military tech from eurasia was also more advanced w steel and swords vs americas wood axes, and quilted armor. eurasians also could use animals as power and wheels for transport, naval tech such as compasses and cannons were superior to rafts. pol org- europeans were ruled under organized states and empires w religion for cohesion. writing- eurasia had literate bureaucracy empowering pol admin, exploration and conquest, and exanding range of human communication. eurasia also had a head start and easier landscape and climate to deal w .
advantages of aganimals are primary source of protein, manur is fertilizer for crops and fire, can pull plows to till land and ag, farmer lifestyle produces more food, crops grown for resources for other tools. ag involves sedentary lifestyle so more babies. not everyone needs to farm --> specialized jobs like kings and bureaucrats. big animals can also move more goods more quickly allowing for trade, and can fight in wars, and gave people immunity to disease early on.
food production arose independently insouthwest asia, china, mesoamerica, andes, amazon basin .
how did human plant domestication beginunintentionally, bc latrines and garbarge pits may have been the first gardens. visible features for selection- size, taste, fleshy or seedless, long fibers.
advantages of fertile crescentlargest area of mediterranean climate increasing diversity, great climate variation, wide range of altitudes and topographies, valuable crops and domesticated big animals, less competition from hunter gatherers,
3 limitations of new guinea biotano domesticated cereal crops, no domesticable large animals, root crops limiting in calories.
anna karenina principledomesticable aniamls are all alike, every undomesticable animal is undomesticable in its own way. explains that animals in eurasia had ideal characteristics for domestication.
lethal gift of livestockrise of farming helped microbes. farmer civilizations lived in close densities, and poop facilitates the spread of microbes. many people meaning lots of animals and food meaning lots of fertilizer meaning disease spreads.
primary methods of how writing was transmitted across culturesblueprint copying- take existing symbol and give own meaning, idea diffusion- given the basic idea about a language and invent details and symbols.
what influences the success of an inventionacceptance within society, economic advantage, social value, compatibility with shared interest, easily observed advantages in invention's use. mostly spread by diffusion, fucking isolated areas.
3 main factors leading to difference between tech development between europeans and the new worldlevel of food production, barriers to diffusion, differences in human population.
what separates those with power and those withoutwriting- literate populations able to conquer other societies bc they could give details on earlier expeditions to prepare themselves for what is in the new world. , weapons, microbes, political organization.
political organizationband- small group 5-80 usually related, tribes- hundreds in fixed settlement w clans within, egalitarian. chiefdom- thousands to tens of thousands of people, chief has monopoly on force and generalized specializations, states- monetary compensation for leading.
kleptocraciesrule by transference of net wealth from common people to upper classes. disarm public, arm the elite, appease the masses, use monopoly of force to maintain public order and prohibit violence, use religion as means of social control
how did food production contribute to developments of complex societiesallowed time for other jobs such as centralized political authority, econ specialization and social stratification, sedentary living allows for development of tech
australiadry, hot, infertile, nomadic hunter gatherers who organized into bands, developed earliest stone tools but no domesticable animals, irregular droughts and floods so no crops.
new guinea moutnainous, wet, fertile, farmers who settle in villiages and organize tribes, high pop density bc crop growth, create drainage and deforrestation of high valleys. but food has little protein, limited area for food production so small pop so no tech, writing, poltiics
why is it unusual for china to be unifiednorth and south generically and physcially different, differ in climate, many languages.
why did languages spread in chinaeast west rivers facilitate diffusion of crops and tech and language but dominant direction of spread north to south. qin dynasty unifies china and makes everyone spead sino tibetan language.
china's advanced developmentone of world's first centers of plant and animal domestication, dfood production leads to technology, size and diversity create separate local cultures which interact and compete with one another enriching chinese culture and society.
reasons why original hg of philippines replaced by austronesian speaking farmersdenser populations, superior tools and weapons, more developed maritime, epidemic disease to which farmers but not hg have resistance. this didnt happen in new guinea or indeonesia bc hunter gatherer population and more tools and more immunity to disease.
why did development begin later in the americaseuropes long head start on human settlement, more effective food production from avail of domestic plants and animals, less formidable geographic barriers to intercontinental diffusion, non inventions of americas of writing and wheels.
4 main differences in environemnents