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Es1 quiz 2

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eshapeesha's version from 2016-11-16 20:10

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Question Answer
epaall environmental agencies concentrated under, made to monitor pollution and monitor american quality of life.
clean air act of 1970 states are in charge of cleaning air.
whats to new about 1970s clean air actest criteria pollutants- ozone, partculate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, lead. it also increased enforcement authority. it was the first major environmental law to include provision for citien suits.broadened in 1990s
sci and legal expertise in enviroedf starts w scientists, nrdc starts w lawyers
what does the kuznets curve predictpre industrial rise, industrial peak, then post industrial fall in environmental degredation
freegantotal boycott of existing economic system in which the profit motive eclipses ethical consideration
fresh killsfirst landfill in us in new york. they layered trash and ash and soil to mask the smell.
khian sea waste disposal incidentsome phili incinerated trash was supposed to be dumped elsewhere but no one wanted it so it got dumped in haiti and sri lanka. because who cares about third world countries they dont have human rights right
trends in the interstate movement of trashtrash seems to move from states w high population density to low density, waste gravitates from states w high per capita incomes to poorer ones, trash tends to flow from states confronting fewer air and water pollution problems to those with more of those pollution problems.
basel conventioninternational treaty designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations and to prevent transfer of hazerdous waste from developed to less developed countries.
nimbyismnot in my backyard elitism of wanting to use all the shit but not wanting the waste remains in your backyard
climate justivehuman rights, development, econ opportunity, gender, vulnerability, soc issues shaped by climate change
slow violencenot instant, usually not viewed a violence, gradual , out of sight, anon, threat multiplier, vulnerability of ecosystem just like vulnerability of the poor. written about by rob nixon who put slow violences into stories people care about. slow violences include climate change, toxic drift, deforestation, radioactive exposures, oil spills, acidifying oceans, species loss, unexploded land mines........
ken saro wiwahe's a member of the agoni, have a colonial history, run by the military, made vulnerable by structural forces and the demand for cheap energy. he lead a non violent campaig against environmental degredation of the land and waters of ogoniland by the operators of the multinational petroleum industry. he made movement for the survival of the ogoni people.
3 major compartments of co2 storageatmospheres, oceans, land
how does heat and water move across compartmentsevaporation
hadley cell circulationas atmosphere ocean coupling that transfers heat across the globe. greater precipitation around divergence points. less precipitation around convergence points.
wind belts and regional climates determined byatmospheric heat flow and earth's rotation.
temperature in the ocean by depthwarmer up top, mostly in the middle, stark.
density determined bytemp and salinity. more dense= cool and salty. less dense= warm and fresh
upwellingold, cold, nutrient rich, acidic, nutrients come about and feed primary producers leading to high bio productivity. important bc phytoplankton range is limited by depth and mobility.
primary productionthe creation of biomass via fixation of c by photosynthesizing organisms. driven by nutrient availability, nutrients upwelled from old, nutrient rich deepwaters.
biological productivityprimary productivity by autotrophs and secondary productivity .
oceabs absorb how much human created co2 emission1/3
if water temp increasesco2 out. if tempd ecreases co2 moves in
biological pumpphytoplankton aid in drawing carbon into the ocean water due to photosynthesis.
ocean acidificationdecreasing ocean ph threatens calcifying organisms such as corals, mollusks, and important primary producers like coccolithophores by increasing the potential of their body structures to dissolve or cause physiological stress, thus compromising their overall health and reproductive fitness.
threats to the oceanocean acidification, pollution, sea level rise, overfishing
channel island fox]. this illustrates how the natural and human world are intertwined
ddtused to stop the spread of malaria ww2, ends up weakening shells of birds---> rachel carson silent spring. the brown pelican and bald eagle became endangered becauase of it.
ddt and the chanel islandsthe brown pelican and bald eagle become endangered, so bald eagles disappear, feral livestock proliferated, golden eagles hunt pigs then foxes. then there were restoration efforts
restoration of channel island foxescaptive breeding program to reintroduce fox onto islands. translocate golden eagles, hunt and kill feral livestock, release bald eagle chicklets.
why was fox restoration controversialhunt and kill feral livestcok
levels of biodiversitytotal diversity of all life on earth. this includes gene, individual, population, species, ecosystem, and biome.
why havent we found more speciesspecies are small, one species can be split into several, some habitats inaccessible to humans
how is biodiversity spreadgreatest in the tropics and lowest toward the poles.
species richnesstotal number of species in an area, for amphibians at a glocal scale. amphibian diversity clustered mainly in wet tropics.
species area curveshow total species p unit area.
extinction.1-1 species go extinct naturally p yr
extirpationlocal extinction or disappearence of a particular population from a given area.
when did 6th extinction start , whats it calledanthropocene. began w disappearence of pleistocene megafauna between 6 and 14 thousand before the present.
biodiversity loss caused byhabitat loss, pollution, overharvesting causing altered baseline, invasive species,
benefits of biodiversityecosystem services such as clean air and water, sci knowledge, instrumental uses, ethics, aesthetics, biophilia, environmental justice.
lacey actfirst fed law for wildlife conservation based on interstate commerce
fur seal conventionfirst treaty for wildlife conservation.
endangered species act of 1973most powerful and comprehensive biodiversity conservation law ever passed by any nation, passed w no prob, fed receivership program for species that have declined under state authority. aims to prevent extinctions and promote recoveries.
food security guarantee of an adequate, safe, nutricious and reliable food supply to all people at all times.
malnutritioninc undernutrition- long term dietary condition that includes proteion energy defecit or micronutrient defecit.
chronic overnutritionform of malnutrition in which a persons weight is hiher than healthy.
how much space does ag take up38% land surface, 26% for grazing livestock, 12% crops. typically a polyculture mic of diff crops
why did ag occur climate warmed. growing populations were stressing ecosystems,
green revolutionbrings ag tehc to less developed parts of the world, revolutionized global ag and boosted produciton esp in poorer countries.
parent materialbase geologic material in a location exposed to water, air, and life.
weatheringlarge rocks turn to small particles. bio activity contributes through decomposition, accumulation of organic matter.
soil profilecross section as whole from surface down to bedrock, consists of layers known as horizons.
leachingminerals in soil transported downward, soil particles suspended or dissolved in liquidare transported.
topsoilcrucial, most nutritive for plants, loose texture, dark coloration, strong water holding capacity.
soil problemserosion, contamination, salinization
to conserve water CA farmers havefallowed fields, traded water rights, mined groundwater, installed better irrigation systems
CA water statsaccounts for 3/4 states water consumption and only 2% economy
edmonston pumping plantlifts water over mountains. worlds largest pumpking station, biggest consumer of energy in CA
food desertsareas with no transportation, no markets, no produce.
cochamba bolivia40% have no access to filtered water. the government failed to provide for them so water is privtized to aguas del tunari. then water prices increase causing riots so the contract was cancelled.
cochabamba declarationwater is a human right that shouldn't be privatized or commercialized.
dublin declarationwater has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognized as an economic good.
right of thirstjewish, priority of those who need water, drinking is the priority, community's needs satisfied before outsiders. same w sharia law.
indian wateravail to all but segregated by caste.
common features of how cultures view waterdrinking water not viewed as a commercial good, free access to water in times of need regarded as a basic right, this culture can endure long periods.
roman aqueductsfirst sewer system to get rid of waste in reservoirs. most people get water from a public bucket, some pay for their own private pipe. everyone pays through a vectigal tax directed to maintenance.
dutch in new amsterdam watercollect rain water in cisterns, shallow private wells, the kalch hook where water collects, 1660 plans for wells but stuyvesant denies.
british in ny waterconstruction of public wells, reliance on the collect,
city initiatives new york city history water1774 approval for steam engine to pump water through the city. issuance of water works money, first paper money issues by an american city. construction commences, but destroyed when british occupy the city. no municipal plans after.
manhattan companycorporate mandate to provide nyc with drinking water. monopoly authority for water provision. assumed water comes from the bronx river.
public health and epidemiologyjohn snow discovers a pump causing cholera resulting in the creation of public health and epidemiology.
first chlorine used to filterjersey city.
flintis told they have to use lead pipe water mains which causes sickness
first example of bottled water
us gets most of its energy fromnon renewable resources, natural gas
sb 350requires the state to increase its share of renewable energy from 33% to 50% over 15 years.
offshore wind farm possibility inmorro bay
potential energyenergy stored in an object due to its position or configuration
kinetic energyenergy that an object possesses due to motion, often referred to as work.
law of conservation of energyin an isolated system energy is neither lost nor gained, it remains constant. it can change form from potential energy into kinetic energy. therefore machines require outside sources of power.
biomass fuelinc plant material and dung how people generated energy locally historically
anthropocenestarts w industrial revolution, which was started by coal burning steam engine by james watt.
how long have people been using coalsince 1000 AD. then 1950s- surpassed by oil.
where does us get most energy from, how used?petroleum and natural gas. most energy consumed in us goes to transportation and production of electricity.
renewable energy sourcessmall but rapidly growing sector of energy econ
hydropowermost renewable energy comes from here, zero carbon source but devastates aquatic ecosystems
swanson effectpredicts that the price of solar modules tends to decline by 20% for every doubing of shipped volume.
crude oil pros and consabundant, easy to transport, cheap. but there are carbon emissions, finite resources, drilling threatens local environments
coalabundant, cheap, domestic, versatile, but air pollution and carbon emissions and mining spoils landscape, nonrenewable.
natural gasclean burning, low carbon emissions, efficinent, inexpensive, non renrenewable, bad for water quality.
hydropowerwater storage and energy produced together, zero emisions. but devastates aquatic ecosystems, costly to build dams, risk of catastrophic failure.
nuclearzero emissions, renewable, low cost, potential for disaster, dangerous products, short facility lifespan
wind/solarzero emissions, renewable, no by products, requires large amounts of land or water, wildlife impacts, can be unreliable.
jevons paradoxtechnological progress can increase the efficiency of resource use, which can increase the rate of consumption of that resource.
ivanpah valleyeast cali wind farm reponsible for thousands of bird deaths.
hydraulic fracturingcan increase domestic energy production, reduce reliance of foreign sources, lower carbon emissions bc natural gas more efficient fuel than oil. but methane leakage, water consumption, and groundwater contamination are harmful.
cop22 in moroccoare paris agreements standards being met? how can underdeveloped countries pay to meet these?
mitigationsteps to reduce the pace and magnitude of changes to global climate.
adaptationsteps to lessen bad impacts of climate change.
paris cimate agreementhalt increase in global avg temp, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, submit plans to reduce emissions, all to minimize the effects of climate change
global stock takemeasures emissions
arreniuspredicts the burning of fossil fuels will change average global temperature
keelingcomes up with keeling curve showing the constant, but stilll patterned rise and fall of temp that occurs. overall the amplitude of this breathing has changed and now spring is a week earlier than 1960s.
long term atmospheric comditions depend ontemp, precip, wind, humidity, barometric pressure, solar radiation, frequency of extreme events such as droughts and storms.
3 factors that influence climatesun, atmosphere, oceans
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