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Es1 quiz 2 part 2

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eshapeesha's version from 2016-11-16 23:29

Section

Question Answer
4 major greenhouse gasseswater vapor, co2, methane, ozone. first realized by fourier
anthropogenic radiative forcingchanges in the heat balance between solar inputs and losses to space caused by people's changes to the composition of the atmosphere. the amount of change in thermal energy that a given factor causes.
why does climate change vary naturallychange in rotation and orbut, solar output varies, oceans hold 50x more carbon than atmosphere, but warmer oceans= less absorption, oceanic circulation
keeling curveshows annual fluctuation of co2 levels and how they exhibit a sawtooth pattern which resuts from seasonal changes in plant respiration. co2 concentrations increase during the northern hemisphere winter and decrease during the summer as plants absorb co2.
intergovernmental panel on climate changereviews and assesses the sci consensus about the current state of climate change knowledge and its potential consequences.
effect of rising sea levelsbeach erosion, coastal flooding, salt water in aquifers, storm surges, migration.
threat to coral reefswarmer waters casue coral bleaching, enhanced co2 alters ocean chem leading to acidification, impairment of organisms to build up exoskeletons of calcium carbonate, catastrophe for ocean biodiversity
options for dealing w climate changesuffering- apathy, adaptation- new tech, mitigation- change, reduction, modification of personal action to reduce problem.
geoengineeringpurposefully modifying earth's climate
caron dioxide removalair capture, ocean fertilization, biomass storage
space based reflectorsstratospheric aerosols, enhanced surface albedo, enhanced cloud albedo
eutrophicationhigh nutrient input results in explosive algal growth causing quick die offs causing large amounts of biomass to be decomposed, and decomposition draws oxygen out of the water column. this results in low to no oxygen avail in the water for fish and other oxygen breathing organisms.
post glacial reboundland previously under a weight rises when weight is removed.
ground subsidenceland that was adjacent to weighted land was artificially elevated so it sinks when weight is removed.
warmer global temp leads toless seasonal sea ice formation, therefore water remains fresher at surface due to lack of brine rejection. and there is a melting of polar ice sheets on land which introduces low salinity water to areas of deepwater formation, further decreasing salinity and increasing sea level.
trajedy of the commonswhen rational, self interested actors seek to maximize their profits they can exhaust a common pool resource.
tech determinismchanges in tech drive human behavior
regulatory failurefailures to adequately manage ocean resources based on inaccurate assumptions, inadequte laws, or weak enforcement.
lack of international cooperationneed for better treaties, frameowrks, etc, to pool resources, share knowledge, and promote effective management.
ocean zoningdividing ocean space into areas where certain activities are permitted or excluded
marine protected areasprotect certain areas from resource exploitation and thus provide for the continued diversity and productivity of regional ecosystems
california marine life protection actcalls for the creation of a science based, citizen planned network of mpas
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