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Es1 midterm

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eshapeesha's version from 2016-10-20 01:15

Section

Question Answer
environmentcomplex system of systems that inc nature and culture
turco- is enviro changing or not temp and enviro dont change much
hedgesondata shows humans have changed a lot
chauvet cave showspeople have long understoof that environments are dynamics, meaning that they change over time and can be affected by human action.
balance of nature18th century form of thought, aristotle
giant chain of beinghierarchical model of god's plan for life. god at the pinnacle followed downward by angels, animals, humans, plants, hell. woah yo. wtf
carl linnaeusargues for divinely ordered nature saying god made all plants and animals.
peaceable kingdomart by hicks shows balance of nature in ideas
four influences to change the way scholars think of changenatural history collecting, wildlife extinctions, and the development of paleontology and evolutionary theory,
in geology models of change in esuniformitarianism- (lyell)same gradual processes that currently shape life on earth have always been underway, catastrophism- (cuvier)earth history is shaped by occassional, unpredictable, transformative events.
models of change in evolutionary biophyletic gradualism -small variations over time produce larger changes in plant and animal species (darwin), as populations respond to natural selection, punctuated equilibrium- little change occurs over long periods of time, but major shifts sometimes occur, leading to the formation of new species. (gould)
atmosperic science models of changegaia hypothesis- earth is a self regulating system with built in mechanisms that discourage changes and maintain = (lovelock)
chaos theoryfuture weather is extremely sensitive to conditions today, climate systems are prone to radical changes and unpredictable outcomes. (lorenz)
gaia hypothesisliving and nonliving parts of the earth form complex interacting system of systems, comparable to the structure of a single organism. named after the greek earth goddess gaia, at the suggestion of novelist william golding. he argues that the biosphere, comprised of all living beings, has a regulatory effect on the earth's that maintains an environment suitable for life. foundation for earth system science.
skepticism for gaiametaphorical, reductionistic, no bio mechanism
evidence supportingocean salinity, atmospheric oxygen concentration, carbon cycle, global mean surface temp
models of change in ecology (successional theory, disturbance theory)successional theory- ecological communities go through predictable stages of development, reaching a final climax state determined by climate and soils (clements) vs disturbance theory- disturbance is the norm in most ecosystems and can result in unpredictable, unidirectional shifts at certain tipping points.
scaleextent, resolution, can refer to space or time, defined by viewer
extentarea of study
resolutionsmallest size object of analysis
natural causes of enviro changeextraterrestrial impacts, planetary orbital cycles, geologic processes, evolutionary change, climatic cycles, random weather events, population dynamics
eccentricityshape of earth's orbit
obliquitytilt of earths axis
precessionwobble of earth on its axis
stromatolites a type of blue green algae that helped produce our planets oxygen rich atmosphere.
prometheusbristlecone pines were the inspiration for prometheus art
direct sourcesmeasurements taken of the thing or process itself,
indirect sourcesmeasurements taken of one thing that are used to study another. also called proxy sources.
indicator speciesanother common proxy that can serve as representatives of ecosystem health bc they are sensitive to changes in their environment.
qualitative sourceinfo captured or represented in a non numerical form.
quantitative sourceinfo captured or represented in numerical form.
cyclical changepatterns of change over time that operate on cycles, such as the days, seasons, el nino patterns.
directional changechanges that do not repeat, may be long term shifts or random one time events.
correlationapparent relationship between 2 variables.
causationactual relationship between 2 variables
type 1 errorthink you see pattern, when one doesnt exist.
type 2 errorfalse negative
driving forceslarge scale processes that create conditions for patterns of change.
proximate causessmaller scale processes that affect change in specific, tangible wats.
baselineset of confitions at a point in time that can be used as a reference, or benchmark, to measure subsequent change
backcastingbackcasting involves using a combination of historical info and contemporary data to estimate past populations or conditions
shifting baseline syndromeeach generation inherits an increasingly degraded ecosystem, but most people accept current conditions as normal
plains bisonthere used to be millions
numerical modelingusing empirable data, ecological theory, and geographic information to study processes, identify important variables, and project trends. can involve the past, present or, future.
triangulationusing 2 or more methods can render a more robust and reliable result than can any single method alone
india population v consumptionindia argues it should be allowed to develop without constraint since it isnt responsible for western countries overdevelopment. it needs to grow for the needs of basic people. its one of the largest fossil fuel emitters but its emissions are fractional compared to global avg and north american avg
anthropogenic enviro changehuman induced, inc migration, ag, urbanization, industrialization, resource extraction, pollution, interactions w wild species, consumption
paleolithic anthropogenic changehunter gatherer stone age people, 2.5 mill- 15000 yrs ago, acquire use of fire, horticulture, hunt wild game
holocencepast 15000 years referred to as this, humans use of resources and impacts on their environments increased, occurred slowly and incramentally and regionally leading to the anthropocene
anthropoceneincreased gdp, population, co2, life expectancy. i=pat (impact= population* affluence* tech
malthusianspopulation growth will outpace food production and resource availability leading to conflict, disease, negative checks, tech and affluence can alter the rate of change but not affect the outcome. hardin agrees in tragedy of the commons
great accelerationtime after ww2 after which population and economic activities grew at a faster rate than in the past.
demographysci of populations shows growth in human numbers has distinctive history by looking at records and models and disease and birth etc.
demogrpahic transitionscenario of the way human populations have grown since 1600s. describes the historical trajectory of human population size. stage 1- high birth rates, high death. stage 2- improved access to clean water, better food so death rates fall, stage 3- prefereces for large families decrease so population growth slows, heads toward stability, stage 4- low birth, low death, stability.
does enviro impact increase w growing affleunceipat says yes and wealthier countries have a larger ecological footprint. econ models say no. there is no simple relationship netween affleunce and environmental change overall. ipat would be better if it focused on interactions.
how has tech contributed to environmental changehas and hasnt. ex- fossil fuels, depends on use and content
environmental kuznets curvepostulates that following an initial period of increased impacts, total environmental impacts decrease with increasing affluence.
phillip morris studymakes a cost benefit analysis of smoking in the czech republic and comes to the conclusion that each smoker will save the government $1227 and this gets leaked
ford pinto cost benefitit would cost more for ford to upgrade safety than to pay for the deaths, injuries, and vehicles of users to they dont alert people of safety issues.
utilitarianismresources should be managed for the greatest benefit for the most people for the longest time, jeremy bentham
cost benefit analysisecon approach that seeks to compare the costs and benefits of environmental projects, actions, or inactions to understand the trade offs involved in enviro decision making.
problems w cost benefit cost of externalities that isnt included in this model falls on a third party, discounting (future predictions) complicated by issues of uncertainty and irreversibility, intergenerational justice- fairness to future generations,
damming the grand canyonbureau of reclamation overestimated the benefits, underestimated the costs, and failed to adequately consider alternatives for water storage and power generation.
ecosystem serviesthe diverse benefits provided by nature to human societies. incorporates diverse ecosystem processes and functions in calculations of economic value derived from nature, places monetary value on goods and services provided by nature, can produce revenue for the maintenance of functioning ecosystems, demonstrates how much all societies rely on nature drawing more from ecological economics.
problems w ecosystem servicesdifficult to measure values and create markets of ecosystems
gulf of mexico northern coastal wetlandshabitat for fisheries, rec, protection from tropical storms and hurricanes, would cost 30 bill to restore,
sandelshould everything be commodified?
environmental justiceacademic study and activism over disproportionate access to goods, exposure to risks, and participation in decision making processes related to environment that affects human health and well being,
procedural justiceinvolves the processes by which collective decisions are made.
distributive justivefocuses on allocation of benefits and burdens of society
representative justivewho gets to speak and who has to listen, the devaluation of some social groups through everyday and institutional interactions and unequal enforcement.
ethics vs valuesethics are proscriptive, ought to be, theoretical while values are descriptive, what is, empirical
agencyextent to which people can act freely
structureconstraints of social and cultural context.
how to measure valuessurveys, ethnographies- interviews, participant observation;
anthropocentric valuesself interest, community interest, altruism social ecology, ecofeminism, utilitarianism
non anthropocentric valuesecocentrism, biocentrism, postmaterialist thesis
self interestdesire to improve the condition of, or reduce risk to oneself and ones nearest relatives.
community interestdesidre to improve or secure the condition of the community, group or human species of which we are a part.
altruisminherent and unconditional desire to do good unrelated to self interest. problematic in evolutionary theory but less so when mediated by culture.
social ecologyenvironmental damage is caused by and a symptom of larger patterns of injustive in human societies.
ecofeminismdiverse area of thought that looks at environmental problems through the lense of gender.
utilitarianism bookprinciples of morals and legislation
pinchotbelieved in athropocentric conservation. thought we should use natural resources in a sustainable, scientifically justifiable way
muirnon anthropocentric- thought places should be protected for instrinsic, not resource, value. never dam
ecocentrismvalue exists in collections of organisms or natural entities.
land ethica thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. wrong otherwise.
biocentrismvalue exists in individual organisms or biological entities.
peter singers animal liberation1975, focus on interests of non human beings, esp capacity to experience suffering.
do trees have standing stone1972, asked whether non humans should have legal standing in court
postmaterialist thesispoor people tend to care more about meeting basic needs and less about other issues. As wealth grows people begin to worry about more than necessities, richer people have more enviro oriented values. related to maslows hierarchy and kuznet curve
problems w postmaterialist thesisdepends on how you define the environment, assumes the environment is not a basic need, represents a perspective from wealthy countries, survey data at best equivocal.
regulationlegal rules that seek to limit, control, or mitigate unward effects or by by product of certain economic activites. this often refers to pollution in its many forms
administrationefforts to manage lands, waters, or other natural resources for desired goals
keystone pipelinea path from canada to major oil centers. this oil comes from tar sand which uses a lot of energy to harvest the oil from bitumen in the sand. this involves huge infrastructure, boreal forrests decimated.
command and controlan approach to environmental regulation, dictates allowable amount of emissions and sometimes the means of monitoring and reducing them. standards vary from a lot to zero emissions. older facilities may be grandfathered, or exempted from newer regulations. can be effective when dealing with a few large polluters, but more difficult when there are several small ones. important for dealing with grave threats.
problems w command and controlfocuses on compliance, not goals. cost of compliance can vary across firms and facilities, creating an uneven playing field. standards often defined in terms of rates for individuals, not overall levels for society. grandfathering encourages older, dirty facilities to stay in busines due to high start up costs for new facilities. less effective when dealing with non point sources.
montreal protocolthe command and control success story. cfcs were producing compounds that deplete ozone, so they were banned in the us in the 70s, but europe kept using. then a hole int he antarctic was made known leading to meetings attended by all the countries and they agreed to cut down use by 50%.
leaded gaslead is a danger to humans, 0 threshold ubtance. it was used in gas in the 1930s, then epa tried reducing its use, 72- companies rqd to sell non leaded gasoline which was phased out, now levels have declined 78%
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