Es1 final

eshapeesha's version from 2016-12-04 19:31


Question Answer
initial views of enviro gaint chain of being (god's plan of humans at the peak and animals and plants below), linnaeus
4 influences to change the way scholars think of changenatural history collecting, wildlife extinctions, development of paleontology and evolutionary theory
uniformitarianism same gradual processes that currently shape life on earth have always been underway
catastrophismearth history is shaped by occassional, unpredictable, transformative events
phyletic gradualism small variations over time produce larger changes in plant and animal species as populations respond to natural seleciton
punctuated equilibrium little change occurs over long periods of time, but major shifts sometimes occur, leading to the formation of new species
gaia hypothesisearth is a self regulating system with built in mechanisms that discourage changes and maintain equilibrium
chaos theory future weather extremely sensitive to conditions today, climate systems prone to radical changes and unpredictable outcomes.
evidence supporting gaiaocean salinity, atmospheric oxygen concentration, carbon cycle, global mean surface temperature
successional theoryecological communities go through predictable stages of development, reaching a final climax state determined by climate and soils
disturbance theorydisturbance is the norm in most ecosystems and can result in unpredictable, unidirectional shifts at certain tipping points
natural causes of environmental changeetraterrestrial impacts, planetary orbital cycles, geologic processes, evolutionary change, climatic cyces, random weather events, population dynamics
anthropogenic change(human change) inc migration, ag, urbanization, industrialization, resource extraction, pollution, interactions w wild species, consumption
anthropoceneincreased gdp, population, co2, life expectancy, i(nfluence)=p(opulation)a(ffluence)t (ech)
malthuspop growth will outpace food production and resource avail -->conflict, disease, neg checks. tech and affluence can alter rate of change. harden agrees in trajedy of commons
great accelerationtime after ww2 after which population and econ activities grew at a faster rate than in the past
demographic transitionscenario of the way human populations gave grown since 1600s. describes historical trajectory of human population size. stage 1- high birth rates, high death rates. stage 2- improved access to clean water, better food so death rates fall. stage 3- preferences for large families to decrease so growth slows, 4- low birth, low death, stability.
evironmental kuznets curveinitial period of increased impact, then total enviro impacts decrease with increasing affluence.
phillip morris studycost benefit analysis shows smokers save the government money, so they didnt take measures to reduce smoking...
utilitarianismresources should be manages for the greatest benefit for the msot people for the longest time
environmental justiceacademic study and activism over disproportionate access to goods, exposure to risks, and participation in decision making processes related to environment that affects human health and well being.
procedural justicecollective decisions made
distributive justicefocuses on allocation of benefits and burdens of society
representative justicewho gets to speak and who has to listen
ethicsproscriptive, ought to be
valuesdescriptive, what is.
anthripocentric conservationuse natural resources in a sustainable, scientifically justifiable way. pinchot
non anthropocentricthought places should be protected for intrinsic, not resource, value
postmaterialist thesispoor people tend to care more about meeting basic needs and less aout other isssues. as wealth grows, people begin to worry about more than necessities, richer people have more environmentally oriented values.
keystone pipelinepath from canada to major oil centers. oil comes from tar sand which uses a lot of energy to harvest the oil from bitumen in the sand. this involves huge infrastructure, boreal forrests decimated.
command and controldictates allowable emissions and sometimes the means of monitoring and reducing them. standards vary from a lot to zero emissions. older facilities may be grandfathered, or exempted from newer regulations. can be effective when dealing with few large polluters, but more difficult when there are several small ones. important for dealing w grave threats.
montreal protocolthe command and control success story. cfcs were producing compounds that depleted ozone, so they were banned in the us in the 70s, but europe kept using. then a hole in the antarctic was made known leading to meetings attended by all the countries and they agreed to cut down use by 50%.
performance based standardsstandards that set emissions targets. these have the benefit of flexibility since the focus can be specific or boras. polluters adopt the approach that works best for them, but still requires on going monitoring.
market oriented approachescreating econ incentives for better performance. inc taxes, trading schemes, subsidies. beloved by industry, can be costly tho.
ca assembly bill 32sought to reduce statewide greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 using tax incentives, new regulations, state fed cooperation, encourages renewable energy development and conservation.
his of american enviro law1800- wild west, econ liberalism; 1900- progressive era of conservationa nd bureaucratic expansion; 1960- enviro era w new fed laws, agencies, and concerns. 1990s- struggle and reform w legislative gridlock, and new pathways. now- contd gridlock, resource scarcity, non gov governance.
policies of environmental era1964 wilderness act, 1969 nepa, 1970 clean air act, 1972 clean water act
neparequires environemntal impact statement of major projects to significantly affect the quality of human enviro.
epaall environmental agencies concentrated under, made to monitor pollution and monitor american quality of life.
clean air act 1970est criteria pollutants, increases enforcement authority, allows citizens to file suits
kuzets curvepre industrial rise, industrial peak, post industrial fall in environmental degredation
basel conventionaimed to reduce movement of hazardous waste between nations and to prevent transfer of hazerdous waste from developed to less developed countries
climate justiceinc human rights, development, econ opportunity, gender, vulnerabiltty, social issues shaped by climate change.
slow violencegradual, out of sight, anon, vuln of ecosys just like vuln of poor, inc climate change, toxic drift, deforestation, radioactive exposures, oil spills,
ken saro wiwaogoniland threatened by worlds demand for energy, lead a non violent campaign against environmental degredation of the land and waters of ogoniland by the patroleum industry.
3 major compartments of co2 storageatmpshere, ocean, land
hadley cell circulationatmospheric ocean coupling that transfers heat acros s the flove. greater precipitation around divergence points. less precipitation around convergence points.
upwellingold, cold, nutrient rich nutrients come about and feed primary producers leading to high bio productivity. important bc phytoplankton range is limited by depth and mobility.
oceans absorb how much human co21/3
increase temp -> co2decreases, co2 increases w cold
threats to oceanocean acidification, pollution, sea level rise, overfishing
ocean acidification ongoing decrease in pH of earth's oceans, caused by uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. threatends organisms skeletons
ddtused to stop the spread of malaria in ww2, ends up weakening shell sof birds. pelicans and bald eagles became endangered bc of it
ddt and channel islandsbrown pelican and bald eagle become endangered, so bald eagles disappear, feral livestock proliferated, golden eagles hunt pigs then foces. then restoration
levels of biodiversitygene, individual, population, species, ecosystem, biome
why havent we found more speciesspecies are small, one species can be split into several, some habitats inaccessible to humans
extripationlocal extinction of a particular species to a particular area
biodiversity loss caused byhabitat loss, pollution, overharvesting causing altered baseline, invasive species
benefits of biodiversityecosystem services such as clean air and water, sci knowledge, ethis, e justice,
lacey actfirst fed law for wildlife conservation based on interstate commerce
fur seal conventionfirst treaty for wildlife conservation
green revolutionbrings ag tech to less developed areas, revolutionized global ag and boosted production esp in poorer countries
soil problemserosion, contamination, salinization
how have CA farmers conserved waterfallowed fields, traded water rights, mined groundwater, installed better irrigation systems
cochabamba40% have no access to filtered water, gov failed to provide for them so water is privatized to aguas del tunari. then water prices increase causing riots and contract cancelled
cochabamba doctrinewater is a human right that should not be commercialized.
dublin decwater has econ value, should be recognized as such
right of thirstcultures such as judaism and sharia law view water as a right and give it to all
roman watercome up w first sewer systems to get rid of waste from reservoirs. most get water from a public bucket and some pay for a private pipe. everyone pays vectigal tax for maintenance
manhattan comanycorporate mandate to provide nyc w drinking water, monopoly authority for water provision, assumed water comes from bronx river
flinthas to use water that goes through lead pipes which cause sickness and contamination
first bottled water
us gets most energy frommostly petroleum and natural gas. most energy goes to transportation and production of electricity
hydropowermost renewable energy comes from here, 0 emissionjs but devastates aquatic communities
swanson effectsolar modules decline in cost as more are purchased
crude oil pros and consabindant, easy to transport, cheap, but carbon emissions. its a finite resource that threatens local enviro. abundant, cheap, air pollution, carbon emissions,
natural gasclean burning, low carbon emissions, efficinet, inexpensive, non renewable
nuclear0 emissions, renewable, wildlife impacts
jevons paradoxtech progress can increase efficiency of resoure use which can increase rate of consumption of that resource
frackingincrease domestic energy production, reduce reliance on foreign sources, methane leakage, water consumption, groundwater contamination
mitigationsteps to reduce pace and magnitude of changes to glocal climate
adaptationsteps to lessen bad impacts of climate change
keeling curvepatterned rise and fall of temp through history, but overall amplitude of breathing has changed. naturally co2 concentration is higher over winter bc less plants to photosynthesize
effects of sea level risebeach erosion, coastal flooding, salt water in aquifers, storm surges, migration.
threat to coral reefswarmer waters cause coral bleaching, enhanced co2 alters ocean chem--> acidification, impairment of organisms to build up exoskeletons of calcium carbonate, catastrophe for ocean diodiversity.
options for dealing w climate changesuffering- apathy. adaptation- new tech. mitigation- change our habits to reduce the problem at the source. modification of human action
geoengineeringpurposefully modifying earth's climate
carbon biodioxide removalthrough air capture, ocean fertilization, biomass storage
eutrophicationhigh nutrient input results in explosive algal growth causing quick die offs causing large amoutns of biomass to be decomposed, drawing oxygen to be drawn out of the water column--> little to no oxygen avail for life
post glacial reboundland masses previously depressed by huge weight of ice sheets are now rising
ground subsidenceland that was adjacent to weighted land was artificially elevated so it sinks when weight is removed
trajedy of the commonswhen rational, self interested actors seek to maximize their profits they can exhaust a common pool resource.
regulatory failurefailures to adequately manage ocean resources based on inaccurate assumptions, inadequate laws, weak enforcement.
ocean zoningdividing ocean space into areas where certain activities are permitted or excluded
recall of the wilduse dutch land to recreate paleolithic conditions. the animals could not purvive on their own though bc lack of resources and harsh winters.
can altered environments be restoredyes and no. you can never go back in time, we usually have inadeuquate data about the past, ecosystems are constantly changing anyway, some conditions are impossible or undesirable to recreate, history can inform but isnt 100%.
resiliencethe ability of an ecosystem to maintain its structure and function, withstanding shock. can rebuild themselves.
ecosystem services includeflood protection, water quality, air quality, pollination, nutrient cycling, open space
evergladesseasonally flooded marshes. hurricanes and floods contaminated w mercury, then the water resources development act attempted the largest restoration project ever attempted. challenges include infrastructure removal, diverse interests and politics, exotic species like burmese phythons, funding.

Recent badges