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eshapeesha's version from 2016-04-24 21:05


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the axesthe east west axis of eurasia makes the transfer of tech and culture easier than in africa and north america which had a north south axis. Africa also had a jungle going through it, limiting the transfer of goods contrasting the constant northern temperate zone throughout eurasia. Rice originated in central asia and was spread to east asia and spain, whereas corn stayed in mexico for a very long time and was not transferred.
contagionspreading of disease from person to person through direct or indirect contact. occurs through microbes which started on domesticated animals and then jumped off onto humans. Some contagions from eurasia include measles, tuberculosis, smallpox, infleunza, pertussis, and malaria. was transferred through handling and eating meat as well as through microbes in saliva that were spread in the air through coughs. since eurasians were the first to domesticate animals they were also the first to develop immunity
mesopotamiabetween the tigris and euphrates, sometimes no water making scarcity an issue. the babylonian, assyrian, and sumerian people live here and it included the large city states of babylon, urok, and ur. it was around during the stone age during which people did not fabricate metal. there was advanced ag development bc they learned to control water in rivers, by building dykes and canals, and submerging plants. there was also plenty of wheat, millet, and barley until salty water made them lose wheat and millet. . they were able to create civilization by walling of the wilderness. first to rise and fall due to enviro manipulation. there was also warfare over religion, territory, and water rights. this area has never been at peace.
ancient egyptdependent on nile river. went through phases, starting w protodynastic period, then old kingdom, then middle kingdom, then new kingdom. each kingdom continued to increase in central authority. the different levels of organization are band, tribe, chiefdom, then state in which there is a strong leader and they serve people in exchange for money. pharoahs receive tribute in pyramids such as the great pyramid of khufu. there was corruption, and it was a huge civz.
chinaneolithic period has more sophisticated tools, herding, and agriculture. they had a dynastic culture w pigs, silkworms, peaches, citrus, ducks, rice, water buffalo all of which first domesticated in china. China was also good at controlling water and there were canals in the grand canal of china. The great wall of china kept the mongols out, and chinese culture greatly infleunced the culture of the rest of east aisa. there was lots of warfare due to their location so they did lots of martial arts such as wushu kung fu
gilgameshepic of gilgamesh was the oldest story ever written down. they used clay tablets and cuneiform symbols. mesopotamian sumerians were the first to write since they amassed grain which they needed to keep track of. they did accounting to standardize writing. gilgamesh was about a king of urok who is great, young, and oppressive. the sky god then creates edu who has the strength of thousands of men to be gilgamesh's rival, and they end up taking down gilgamesh with a prostitute allowing gilgamesh to gain wisdom. written language didnt spread through the americas due to east west axis, and bc eurasia had papyrus paper, parchment, and paper from china.
indus valley civzborders the indus river valley and saraswati river. this civz was the biggest in size, included the cities of harappa and mohenjo daro. they also had symbols for writing consistently, advanced urban planning, pottery and metallurgy, trade w mesopotamia, domesticated animals. went down bc the aryans attacks which vedic texts show. they also could've overexploited the area bc of deforestation for brick, overgrazing, drought, flooding, earthwuakes. a cautionary tale showing the many enviro factors to beware of.
bronze age/ iron agetech builds upon itself, it is an autocatalytic process- if other inventions werent in place, successionary ones couldnt be around. there was metal fabrication using soft metal ore, furnaces, and society could be sedentary bringing about the use of bronze. this created a materialistic artisan class. iron ore is more shapable and hard than copper and was used until the industrial revolution.
greecepeacefully coexisted w nature, huge egyptian influence. minoan culture was around in 2000 bc, in which crete was the center and there was egyptian and mycenean influence. the mycenenas had horses, trade, and tech. the greeks were around from 2000- 300 bc. they had islands in the mediterranean sea during the bronze age and their alphabet was from sumerian symbols. there were sheeps, goats, pigs, cows, what, barley, and rice. the greeks had poor soil and little land so crops were difficult and they cultivated olives and grapes. there was a lot to hunt and gather though. drink tons of alcohol bc wine is cleaner than water. they also had grand temples and city states. they had time to devote to the arts, history, logic, math, and discourse . paraclean athens was the peak of greek culture and people would go to athens to study. they had a democracy as well as slavery but slaves could work their way out of slavery. at the state level people can participate for gov and there was nature worship of gods.
the roman empireadopted greek culture, direct descendents of the greeks, had dominance in 146 bc, cohesion of nature and religion. the etruscans went to rome and there was also paganism. come up w latin language, ruthless in war to enemies. state level empire, slaves who serve as servicemen, always at war but bring order to conquered states, intense enviro manipulation bc need wood and brick; cut down the seeders of lebanon in the mediterranean, air pollution bc mine lead and metal, extinct animals. pax romana is a period of cessation of civil wars and expansionary wars. they brought in specialized workers and conquer britain and pacify mediterranean civil war. ends w bad rulers and invasions from rome. the huns, over extention, and enviro brought them to their downfall.
polytheism and monotheismpolytheism is the belief in many gods, paganism is the roman religion but people eventually move to dualisim w one bad god and one good god. and monotheism is the belief in one god. in judaism hebrews were lead by moses, god gives him 10 commandements and in the after life people are closer to god. judeo christian tradition's culture follows the rules of those religions and are ok w enviro manipulation.
early middle agesaka dark ages, post greco roman times when there was barbarian destruction of art. at the end of the greco roman to beginning of renaissance. christianity spread, europe became overwhelmingly christian, christianity gained support bc it appealed to enslaved and poor people since it was easilly understandable and followable. codified by papacy and split into western (roman catholic church w pope) and eastern church (orthodox, constantinople). there was also feudalism in which the clergy worked w lords and everyone else was a serf/peasant. religion was a powerful means of social control.
high middle agespeople better fed, more personal posessions, longer life span. west europe has a mild climate and ocean access. manorial system- peak 1000-100 ad, peasants and serfs tied to manor. peasants paid for work, own plots of land and own houses and livestock. they work under lords, knights, and nobility. islam was the 3rd great monotheistic religion, and they wanted peace w allah who is all powerful and people worship him daily. spread from southeast europe, to arabia, to dehli. infidels go to hell and followers to heaven. the crusades were quests to holy land for control or religious artifacts and lots of war ensued. under the manorial system people grew for themselves following the small is beautiful 70s term. st francis of assissi converted to catholicism, creates franciscan church, close to animals and nature and encourages kindness to them, san francisco, insularity.
trading zonescome about once people produce more than they need so they sell it elsewhere. there was no trade for a while bc afraid to go out, europe geo closed off, manorial system insular. putting out system-owners of wool give it to commoners who turn it into a finished and sellable product. there was climate change to cold and wet weather allowing for more agriculture, people live longer, end of insularity. merchant culture- class of traders who buy and sell goods. venice and genoa have renaissance (= rebirth) which is an enlightened time w lit and arch. there was also a transition from gothic architecture to greco roman style. secularism separated church and state. marco polo goes to china and then tells italy about all the available goods starting up euro asian trade. expansion of trade largely occurred bc hanseatic zone had set prices, trade agreements, protection of trade. the north sea inc the baltic and surrounding land, italia zone, and middle europe zone.
black deathbubonic plague, an infection that comes bc caravan routes of east west transferrence that originated in central asia in wet cloth on rats w fleas on them. it was a bacterial infection, and if u got a flea beat it would get infected and turn into a bubo and eventually turn black and die. if you got the pneumonic plague you'd be dead within 48 hours. there was a population decline of 30 mill from 13-1400. doctors would bleed people, leech people, and immerse them in hot oil. church said people could pray it out leading to them declining in prestige. causes famine bc everyone was dead. it was the first eurasian widespread pandemic- widepspread disease.
beringa23,000 yrs ago, up by the bering strait. pleistocene age- most of the planet was under ice, there was glaciation and melting. wisconson glaciation in northern north america causing low ocean levels revealing beringa, a land mass between siberia and algeria. once the oceans filled back in it created the bering strait. big mammals would migrate across beringia to an ice free zone in alaska. people followed mammals migrating for food into north america. overkill hypothesis- megafaun killed bc advancing hunters killed too many but it could also have been bc of climate change, or natural die off. some beleive that humans couldnt have killed that many. extra terrestrial comets could have fallen causing a 30 yr fire making the animals go extinct. these people came up with the clovis point, a spearhead found in new mexico. there was a transition between those migrating and those who settled. duirng the archaic period north and south america became settled, anasazi- desert culture in mesa verde, elaborate buildings, river water irrigates crops. beringia theory-people migrated from Siberia to Alaska across a land bridge that spanned the current day Bering Strait. they also could have island hopped across the pacific to south america.
chumashmix of hunter gatherer and urban culture to the south making them complex coastal hunter gatherers who ate shellfish and sea otters. settled on the channel islands, reocgnized chief, large population, live off harvesting acorns, process through mortor and pistol, water limits growth ability, tomol- plank canoe, saw driftwood, put into wood frame, stuff opening w tooley brush, coat w tar. used for trade up and down the coast. they also made water proof baskets out of fiber from roots, water proof w tar. they had advanced dwellings adnd burned seeds to germinate them. they also had a shell bead currency, trade kelp and salt, spanish colonize w mission system
mesoamericafirst culture was the olmecs who make incredible stoneheads, human sacrifice for happiness of the sun.
mayawho did math, observatory w astronomy, cities, temples to honor gods esp in teotihuacan which is the capital and biggest city in america. the maya had several city states, manipulable population @ yucatan peninsula, grow corn and store grain which involved intense enviro manipulation and resulted in drought and deforrestation. they also did metal fabrication, speartips out of gold, and extensive trade w aztecs.
aztecsromans of the new world in ruthlessness, a lake was dried to build tenochtitlan, dominant when cortez came through, more human sacrafice especially of conquered people, writing, state, food production, science, no weapons making them conquerable.
inca empireandean cultures come from beringia across the pacific. they had agriculture w cotton, corn, and irrigation. didn't spread north bc ecological barrier of jungle and mountains. it was mostly in peru. they were an advanced civilization with common language and metal fabrication. called themselves the inca which means country, ruler, and people. they subjugated and conquered the south, north, and east. one ruler was huayna capac. the inca empire was polytheistic and had no writing but did sophisticated accounting with a knotted string. they built roads for communicationby runners who sent messages. incas built terraced ag and grow crops up high. they also did irrigation from snow capped peaks. they made advanced cities such as macchu picchu of stone. there was metallurgy of gold and tin as well. they domesticated llama and alpacas to move goods, harvest wool, and for milk. there was 12 million people.

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