ES 4 midterm

eshapeesha's version from 2016-06-06 17:54


Question Answer
elements heavier than hydrogen ceated throughfusion, creating energy bc by adding nucleons the element stabilizes and releases excess energy
once an element is heavier that iron it cantbe a star bc mass and energy too great
heavy elements created whenstars condense into a supernova and heavy elements released
big bang to ocean timelinethe big bang was14 mill years ago, universe expanded and cooled creating atoms from subatomic particles at a high density creating galaxies and stars. young earth was homogenous and the sun stripped away its first atmosphere through fusion . gasses released by outgassing from inside earth and comets replace the atmosphere. water vapor in this atmosphere condensed into clouds bc temp began declining. when it became cool enough the water vapor could rain down without evaporating and it accumulated in basins and depressions which created earth's early oceans.
when did the solar system condense5 bill yrs ago
how did our solar system formthe solar nebula from which everything around us formed was struck by the shock wave of an expanding supernova remnant. this caused turbulence and the condensing mass to spun. the centrifugal force (causing it to spin faster and condense more and more) as well as the heavy atoms absorbed from the supernova resulted in the condensation of our solar system. the center of this ball of stuff was a protosun and the outside of it became the planets.
first planets form howthe first giant planets were those that congealed at a low temp.
how did the sun format first it was a protosun, then the temp rose so fusion could occur and hydrogen could turn to helium. this fusion sent a solar wind of radiation sweeping past inner planets, clearing them of excess particles.
nuclear fusion2 nuclei fuse into 1 larger nuclei (hydrogen to helium in the sun) this adds nucleons, stabilizing, causing excess energy to be released. this is what fuels stars
nuclear fission1 nuclei splits into 2 smaller ones, radioactive decay
how was earth formed as it isyoung earth was homogenous, heat and gravity drew heavy elements like iron and nickel in, and lighter elements to the outer layers. as the temperature increased, stuff started melting and layers became density stratified creating an inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust. earth cools, then 30 mill yrs later a huge planetary body smashes with Earth and its metallic core fell into earth's while most of its rocky mantle was ejected to form a ring of debris around earth. this ring of debris condensed to form the moon.
earth's atmospheresfirst atmosphere stripped away by fusion of the sun. then gasses trapped inside earth burped to the surface to create a 2nd atmosphere. hot vapors rose and condensed into clouds in the cool upper atmosphere. millions of yrs passed, earth cooled, cliuds formed droplets, collect in basins, ocean. this water dissolved minerals from the rock creating salty oceans that gradually accumulated.
chemicals in old atmosphereno oxygen, similar n2, more ch4, and more co2
other oceans in the galaxyeuropa with water under ice, ganymede which is a moon of jupiter, mars with subsurface water, had oceans in the past; titan- saturn's largest moon, has lakes of hydrocarbon.
scientific methodfirst question, then hypothesis, then experiment, then theories/laws
types of marine scimarine geography- crust and composition; marine bio- nature and dist of marine organisms; chem oceanog- study of gasses and solids dissolved in the ocean; physical oceanog- waves, currents, climate predictions
library of alexandria, what was discovered there, who discovered itmost significant library in the ancient world in egypt, destroyed during roman conquest. eratosthenes of cyrene calculated the circumfrence of earth using latitude and longitude and angles and tangents.
what did the chinese do for marine techdevelop rudder, water tight compartments, sails on multiple masts, explore indian ocean.
age of discoveryduring renaissance, europeans do.
henry the navigatorpatrons voyages
christopher columbuspopularizes taking the east
magellanfirst to circumnavigate the world
james cookwants to test theories about planerary orbits. charts new zealand, great barrier reef, tonga, easter islands.
british challenger, leaderfirst oceanic expedition dedicated to sci research in 1872. discovers the sea floor is dead microbodies, puerto rican trench, red clay from the sahara. lead by james cook who had friendly relations w people, samples marine life, plants, animals, recorded data concerning ocean floor and geological exploration.
northwest passage, james cooksea route connecting northern atlantic and pacific oceans through the arctic ocean along the northern coast of north america. straight passage. james cook though that salt water couldnt freeze so it had to exist.
how do scientists probe earth's interiorsci use seismographs and earth's magnetic field, and waves during earthquakes.
continental drift, evidence theory that continents move slowly across the surface of earth. shoreline fit of north and south america, fossil similarities, glacial erosion, and coal in antarctica (when coal is the product of fossils and antarctica is way too cold for fossils)
why didnt peopel believe in continental drift for a whileNo evidence for dramatic movement of the continents (tracks), Sketchy mechanism (centrifugation), Prevailing concept: solid mantle
why do people believe continental drift nowSeismographs revealed a pattern of volcanoes and earthquakes, Radiometric dating of rocks revealed a surprisingly young oceanic crust., Echo sounders revealed the shape of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
seafloor spreadingseafloors form at midocean ridges and spreads. this is powered by convection currents, involves the cooling and shrinkage of ocean/crust depth, sediment thickness and age are evidence of it.
plate tectonicsearth's outer layer divided into lithospheric plates. earth's plates floar on the asthenosphere; plate movement powered by convection currents in the asthemosphere, seafloor spreading, and the downward pull of a descending plate's leading edge.
layers of earth in ordercrust, mantle, lithosphere, asthenosphere, mantle, outer core, inner core
crust (phys, mostly made of)thin, lightweight outermost layer. oceanic crust mostly basalt and d=2.9, continental crust mostly granite and d=2.7
mantle (composed of)silicon, oxygen, iron, magnesium (d=4.5)
core (composed of)mostly iron (d= 13)
lithospherecool, rigid outer layer
asthenospherehot, partially melted layer which flows slowly
mantledenser, more slowly flowing than the asthenosphere
outer coredense, viscous liquid layer, extremely hot.
inner coresolid, very dense, extremely hot.
paleomagnetismfossil or remnant of a magnetic field of rock
hot spota surface expression of a plume of magma rising from a stationary source of heat in the mantle. volcanoes form when plates pass over these.
ring of firearea in the basin of the pacific ocean where tons of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur, 452 active and dormant volcanoes, 75% world's active volcanoes, 90% earthquakes
convergentplates push together. oceanic toward continental (west coast of south america) oceanic toward oceanic (northern pacific), continental toward continental (himalayas). this causes mountains and volcanoes
transform plate boundarycrustal plates move past one another
confirmation of plate tectonicsyoung ocean sediment, oceanic ridges, terranes (oceanic plateaus that form by uplifting and mountain building as they strike a continent), paleomagnetism- strips of altering magnetic polarity at spreading regions, hot spots
divergent boundarymove away from eachother, creating oceanic crust,creates east african great rift valley on land
trenchesarc shaped depression in the deep ocean floor w very steep sides and a flat sediment filled bottom coinciding w a subduction zone at a convergent boundary
most sea floor is made ofmidocean ridges and ocean basin floor. deep ocean floor is 3 miles deep
from what materials do ocean sediment formterrigenous sediment from land erosion, volcanic eruption, and blown dust. biogenous of siliceous and calcareous compounds. sediment shows how old certain areas are, how sediment has traveled, what lived there, etc.
hydrothermal ventsa spring of hot, minral and gas rich seawater found on some oceanic ridges in zones of active seafloor spreading. water descends through cracks and fissures un ridge floor until it comes into contact w hot rocks causing the chemically active water to dissolve minerals and gasses and escape upward through vents by convection.
convection currentheat (caused by heat in core) rises, then cools and falls as it approaches crust, then is heated by the core again causing it to rise. this happens all through the mantle, several currents at a time.
chemical structure of waterwater is a polar compound w 2 positive hydrogens and 1 negative oxygen (w a 2- charge).
how do water molecules bondhydrogen bonds form when the positive end of one water molecule bonds to the negative end of another water molecule. the polarity of water molecules causes ionic compounds to dissolve.
most abundant ions dissolved in seawaterchloride, sodium, sulfate.
as salinity increasesheat capacity decreases, freezing point decreases, evaporation slows, osmotic pressure increases.
osmotic pressurethe pressure exerted on a memberane when the salinity of water is different on each side of the membrane.
structure of watertetrahedron shape
heatenergy produced by random vibrations of atoms or molecules
temperaturean object's response to input or removal of heat
heat capacityheat rqd to raise temp of 1g of a substance by 1 degree C. water has a high hear capacity meaning it resists changing temperture when heat is added or removed
formula for heatheat= mass (g) x heat capacity (cal/g degrees C) x temp change
water, heat, phase changefor water to evaporate 540 cal/g needs to be added to liquid water
latent heat of vaporizationamount of energy required to break bond
latent heatcant sense change in temp
to beware of in heat calculationsdont multiply temperature if calculating for phase change.
heat, phase, temp for wateran increase in heat causes an increase in temperature. water needs an extremely high increase in heat to change phases due to its high heat capacity. to go from ice to liquid add 80 calories, liquid to vapor 540 calories, and vapor to liquid remove 540, liquid to ice remove 80.
temp and denisty wateras temp increases, density decreases in a curved pattern. decreasing temp and increasing salinity increase density for salt water.
reverse osmosisseawater forced through a filter that traps salts, producing fresh water
desalinationseawater boiled producing salt free steam that condenses into fresh water.
salinity's effect on waterdenser, in halocline makes water colder. when salt crystals are placed in water the positive ends (H) of the water molecules attract the negative chloride ion, and negative (O) attract positive sodium.when water attraction is stronger than ion attraction, salt dissolves.
how does salt change waterIDK
thermoclinethe zone of the ocean in which temperature decreases rapidly with depth.
haloclinethe zone of the ocean in which salinity increases rapidly with depth
pycnoclinethe middle zone of the ocean in which density increases rapidly with death. temperature falls and salinity rises.
how much salt in oceanocean is 3% salt
how much salt in a kg, 1g of seawater1kg= 35 g, 1g= 28.57 mg
steady stateproportion and amts of dissolved solids remain constant. ions are being added to and removed from the ocean at the same rate. overall quantity of compound remains contant, and input rate= removal rate
sourcerate at which a compound is added to the ocean
sinkrate at which a compound is removed from the ocean
residence timeaverage length of time an element spends in the ocean. depends on chemical activity
how to calculate source and sinkneed to know residence time (yrs) and quantity of element (g/kg) in ocean. convert the concentration of that element to quantity in entire ocean by multiplying it by 1.37 x 10^21. residence time= amt of element in ocean/ rate at which element is added to or removed from ocean
conservativethose constituents that occur in constant proportions. have long residence times and are the most abundant dissolved material in the ocean. inc major salts like sodium, chloride, sulfate
nonconservativehave short residence times, assoc w seasonal, biological, or short geological cycles. inc nutrients like phosphate and nitrate
gas and tempgas dissolves more readily in cold than warm water
most common gasses in waternitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide
n2most abundant dissolved gas, not readily bioavailable, conservative. super abundant in the atmisphere so it diffuses sea surface and goes into turns to no3 and nh4 during nitrogen fixation
photosynthesis6co2 + 6H2o + energy yields (bc of light) c6h12o6 + 6o2
respirationc6h12o6 + 6Co2 yields 6CO2 + 6H2o + energy

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