Es 4 final

eshapeesha's version from 2016-06-04 18:58


Question Answer
where was most oil seepage southeast of platform holly
What ocean forces acted to distribute (i.e., transport) the spilled oil along the beaches?oil initially spreads in the water depending on density and composition; waves, wave currents, and wind force the oil slick to drift over large areas
what is weathering in an oil spill weathering an oil slick modifies its behavior making it more persistent to marine water and enduring its lifespan in marine biology through processes including spreading, evaporation, dispersion, emulsification- water droplets get suspended in oil due to mixing, dissolution, oxidation, sedimentation and sinking, biodegredation.
orbital wavewaves in which particles of water move in closed circles as the wave passes
progressive waveswavs of moving energy in which the wave form moves in one direction along the surface of the transmission medium. orbital waves are a type of progressive wave because the waveform moves forward.
do waves move water across the oceanwaves transmit energy bt the water doesnt move.
wave type depends onwavelength and depth of penetration depicts wave type
stokes driftthe crest is bigger in an orbit wave, and the trough is a slightly smaller circle. since the orbit isnt a perfect circle it moves forward as each wave passes.
anatomy of a wave (h,l,t,c,f,d)H= wave height
L= wave length
T= period
C= speed
f= frequency
d= depth to bottom
wave heightverticle trough to crest. H
depth to bottomd
periodtime required for wave crest to go to the next wave crest (T)
speeddistance/ time (c= L/T)
frequency1/T, number of wave crests passing point A or B wach second
disturbing forces of waveswind creating wind waves, change in atmospheric pressure, storm surge causing seiches, landslides, eruptions faulting which cause tsunamis, gravity which causes tides.
seichespecial wave that forms from a change in pressure, which makes the flow of water go from one side to the other creating a back and forth sloshing motion.
water depth and wave speedwater depth determines the shape of orbits, and greater depth allows for a full orbit, creaitng a deep water wave.
speed shallow water eqnif a wave is leses than 5m use C= 3.1(radical d)
for water deeper than 5mC= 1.25 radical L
deep water wavewave must occur in water deeper than 1/2 its wavelength so the orbits font reach the sea floor. include
shallow water wavewhen a wave enters water with a depth of less than 1/20 of the wavelength. the orbits become flattened ellipses due to interference from sea floor. if they roughen further after this they come gravity waves. then they sort into sets and once they can feel the botom the wave slows, gets higher, and breaks incudes tsunamis
how are wind waves formedsmall cappilary waves built up due to wind and energy. when they develop its called the sea (up and down motion), when it has long distance movement its called swell, and when it dissipates on the beach its called surf. these waves build up when there is constructiv interference of waves (do the same thing at the same time)
how fast do wind waves move100m
fetchdistance at which wind blows
wave size impacted byfetch, duration, and wind speed
dispersionself sorting by wavelength into packets of wave trains which move across the ocean at the same speed
wave train velocityhalf the wave's velocity, energy at the front is lost and moves to the back of the wave.
wave breakingmovement from deep ot shallow wave which takes on an elliptical shape, then becomes a peak wave, then goes to 1: 7 steepness, and if it gets steeper than that it crashes.
how does depth impact speedgreater depth, more speed
what determines a tsunamis velocity across the oceandepth of the ocean floor. when tsunamis reach shallow water the velocity diminishes and the wave height increases, making for devastation. they become so wide that they draw in water creating a low tide everywhere else to make a massive wave.
how do greenhouse gases act to warm the earth's atmosphereincoming solar radiation in the form of short ultraviolet waves comes to earth through the atmosphere, it is then reflected by earth in the form of long wave infrared radiation (heat). greenhouse gasses that are not balanced in charge can absorb infrared head reflected off earth's surface to heat earth.
earths temp w out greenhouse effect-18 C
which elements contribute most to global warmingco2, ch4, and water vapor contribute most,
greenhouse gassesh2o, ch4, co2, n2o, o3
how has temp changed through history, how do we knowchanges in a 1000 yr pattern, we know this from ice cores, tree rings, ocean sediment cores
ice coressci study ratio of oxygen isotopes trapped within air bubbles in the ice to record past temp, and past carbon dioxide levels. also look at layers and their thickness
where does co2 go47% into biosphere, 29% ocean. americans emit a total of 1.65 x 10^15 grams/yr of co2,


Question Answer
free wavecaused by wind, causes storms and tsunamis
forced wavesuch as gravity, causes tides
surface tension causescapillary waves
gravity causesgravity waves
shallow or deep- wind wave, tsunami, tidewind wave deep, tsunami and tide shallow
how fast do tsunamis move200,000 m
how do waves breakswell feels the bottom, the wave takes up an elliptical formation in which the energy is packed into less water since the water is more shallow, then the wave slows and the wavelength shortens but the period is unchaged, then the wave approaches 1:7 height:wavelength, then breaks at 3:4 height: depth


Question Answer
where is water coldestnorth and south atlantic, south pacific
el ninoweak trade winds cause hot air to be concentrated on the east of the pacific, making it stormier because its warmer than usual since the trade winds arent pushing the wind to the west.
la ninastrong trade winds push warm water to the west coast of the pacific causing evaporation and storms in the west coast while the east coast is cold and dry
trade windswarm trade winds come together at the equator, so the warm air goes over the ocean, creating storms
horse latitudesat 30 degrees, there is an area of separation between the westerlies going to the poles and trade winds going to the equator. this creates an area of high pressure and resulting in no wind, rain, and just sun.
bufferco2 + h2o --> h2co3 ---> hco3 ---> co3
adaptations of benthic organismsno photosynthesizing, anchoring mechanism, not sensitive to harsh enviro, locomotion or float
latent heat of vaporization540 cal/g

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