Es 4 exam 2

eshapeesha's version from 2016-06-04 22:28


Question Answer
How does the addition of ions (salt) alter the molecular properties of water? In what ways does water behave differently when ions are present? salt makes water more dense, when ions are present the water is able to conduct electricity, making it an electrolyte.
salinitymeasure of dissolved organic solids in water
seawatersodium, chloride, sulfate
salt held together byionic bonds
desalinationseawater boiled producing salt free steam that condenses into fresh water.
salinity's effect on waterdenser, in halocline makes water colder. when salt crystals are placed in water the positive ends (H) of the water molecules attract the negative chloride ion, and negative (O) attract positive sodium.when water attraction is stronger than ion attraction, salt dissolves.
how does salt change waterIDK
thermoclinethe zone of the ocean in which temperature decreases rapidly with depth.
haloclinethe zone of the ocean in which salinity increases rapidly with depth
pycnoclinethe middle zone of the ocean in which density increases rapidly with death. temperature falls and salinity rises.
main salts in seawatersodium, sulfate, magnesium
how much salt in oceanocean is 3% salt
how much salt in a kg, 1g of seawater1kg= 35 g, 1g= 28.57 mg
steady stateproportion and amts of dissolved solids remain constant. ions are being added to and removed from the ocean at the same rate. overall quantity of compound remains contant, and input rate= removal rate
sourcerate at which a compound is added to the ocean
sinkrate at which a compound is removed from the ocean
residence timeaverage length of time an element spends in the ocean. depends on chemical activity
how to calculate source and sinkneed to know residence time (yrs) and quantity of element (g/kg) in ocean. convert the concentration of that element to quantity in entire ocean by multiplying it by 1.37 x 10^21. residence time= amt of element in ocean/ rate at which element is added to or removed from ocean
reservoirReservoirs are the total amount of carbon that is present in a component of the Earth that participates in the carbon cycle.
conservativethose constituents that occur in constant proportions. have long residence times and are the most abundant dissolved material in the ocean. inc major salts like sodium, chloride, sulfate
nonconservativehave short residence times, assoc w seasonal, biological, or short geological cycles. inc nutrients like phosphate and nitrate
gas and tempgas dissolves more readily in cold than warm water
most common gasses in waternitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide
n2most abundant dissolved gas, not readily bioavailable, conservative. super abundant in the atmisphere so it diffuses sea surface and goes into turns to no3 and nh4 during nitrogen fixation
co23rd most abundant dissolved gas, key for bio, co2 is nonconservative, sources- respiration and atmosphre, major sinks- photosynthesis and mineral precipitation
o22nd most abundant dissolved gas, key for bio, nonconservative, sources- photosynthesis and atmosphere, major sink- respiration
most abundant compoundsn2, co2, o2
photosynthesis6co2 + 6H2o + energy yields (bc of light) c6h12o6 + 6o2
respirationc6h12o6 + 6Co2 yields 6CO2 + 6H2o + energy
ocean acidificationongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. this causes the water to become acidic because the carbon reacts with water. this causes depressing metabolic rates and immune responses in some organisms, and causing coral bleaching.
buffer systemseries of reactions in which dissolved co2 is converted to bicarbonate using carbonate as a buffer keeping H+ protons (and therefore ph) constant. rn the co2 entering the ocean exceeds the natural replenishment rate of carbonate, causing H+ to increase causing increased acidity. this is also bad for fish with carbonate shells bc acidity decays carbonate.
what happens when you add protons to a bicarbonateWhen protons are added to the solution from an external source, some of the base component of the buffer is converted to the weak-acid component (thus using up most of the protons added)
what happens when protons are removed from a bicarbonateprotons are dissociated from some of the weak-acid molecules of the buffer, converting them to the base of the buffer (and thus replenishing most of the protons removed)
why does acidification make it hard for calcium carbonate shell organismsThe formation of skeletons or shells in most marine organisms is an internal process where most organisms appear to convert bicarbonate to carbonate to form calcium carbonate. But because this conversion creates protons (hydrogen ions), the organisms must exert energy to expel the hydrogen ions into the external environment (seawater). One hypothesis as to why ocean acidification can cause slower calcification rates (and there are several) is that as seawater pH decreases, the organisms must exert more energy to rid themselves of the protons produced by calcification.
What factors impact the density of air, and how?temperature and water content. lower temp, and higher water content lead to greater density. air travels in cycles with gas rising in high temperature, cooling, and then falling
Explain the overall heat (radiation) balance of the Earth in general terms.equator to poles due to ocean currents. surface currents are driven by wind, which pushes water causing deflection resulting in a circular motion.
latitudinal heat balance, Why do we call this a balance?latitudinal heat balance is the way different latitudes are insulated at different intensities. the equator gets the most sun since the suns rays hit it directly and the poles get the least sun. transfer of heat takes from surplus heat zones to defecit heat zones by ocean currents and winds.
What is the Coriolis effect and how does it impact the circulation of the atmosphere? Why are moving objects deflected and in what directions?deflection that occurs because we are on a rotating planet. as warm air expands and rises at the equator, it moves toward the pole. but instead of travelling in a straight path, the air is deflected eastward. in the north hemisphere air is deflected right and in the south left. toward the poles air is deflected more and at the equator its not.
what governs global circulation of airuneven solar heating and the coriolis effect. moving masses of air and ocean currents transport energy from locations with a surplus to those with a deficit.
What is the global circulation pattern of the atmosphere, including the circulation cells, the major surface winds, and the areas of upward and downward movement?global circulation pattern has 3 cells due to coriolis.
polar cellmoves west and sinks due to easterlie winds and high pressure. it is a low pressure area with surface winds that move toward each other to the right on the left and to the left on the right.
ferrel cellferrel cells from 30-60, low pressure zone, move to the east with surface winds moving away from eachother to the right on the right and to the left on the left.
hadley cellhigh pressure, move to west. surface winds on right goes right and on left goes left.
How does the ITCZ fit in? At what latitudes are these different features found?intertropical convergence zone which is a zone between the tropics where winds converge north and south of the equator. occurs right above and below the equator. draws in surface air from the subtropics, this air reaches the equator and then rises to the upper atmosphere bc of convergence and convection, then flows horizontally to north and south poles.
What are monsoonsseasonal patterns of wind circulation characterized by warm winters and wet summers
land breezesoccur after sunset when air cooled by the land blows toward the water
and sea breezes?cool air from over the water moves toward the land. occurs after sunrise.
hurricanes needlow air pressure, warm temp, moist ocean air, tropical winds near the equator.
hurricanes fueled byheat energy released when water vapor condenses.
hurricane forms bcstarts as a westward moving area of low pressure. moist air over the ocean rises in this low pressure area, so cold air replaces it creating wind and rain. then air pressure drops causing further rain. the storm weakens and dies when a hurricane travels over cold land or water bc warm water energy source is gone.
what makes hurricanes spin?It occurs because the Winds to the northeast and southeast come together just above the Equator and with the rotation of the earth and coriolis causes the winds to rotate anti cyclonically
Where do the high and low pressures reside and what determines the direction of spin?low pressure in eye, high pressure surrounding. north of the equator, hurricanes spin left (from pov above hurricane). south of the equator, hurricanes spin right bc earth's rotation gives rise to coriolis acceleration.
what factors come together to create ocean gyres? how do these interplaydriven by winds, coreolis effect, eckman spiraling, and gravity. easterlie and westerlie winds (but esp east) push water, creating friction between the wind and the water. causing deflection creating a circular motion. gravity pulls water down hills, against the pressure gradient. but the coriolis effect causes water to move east around the hill.
eckman spiral and how it affects currentswind force goes one way while direction of motion spirals due to friction. wind pushes a water column one way and the rest follow, eventually going a different direction than the current at the bottom.
coriolis' effect on currents causes currents to spin clockwise in the north and to the left in the south
What are the characteristics of ocean gyres? Why is the hill offset? Where is the energy coming from that pushes the water? large mounds of water and the flow around them. large system of circular ocean currents formed by global wind patterns and forces created by Earth’s rotation. the hill is offset bc the coriolis effect is more intense on the west. wind pushes the water.
What are the different boundary currents and what are their distinctive properties?eastern boundary current are slow, bring water from the poles to the equator, and feed water that will get heated at the poles. western boundary currents are narrow, fast, and deep and they move poleward in each gyre.
What is an Eckman spiral (aka Eckman flow), and how does the direction of flow differ at the surface compared to the net flow at depth? How does the flow direction at depth relate to the winds?Beneath surface currents of the gyre, the Coriolis effect results in what is called an Ekman spiral. wind force goes one way while direction of motion spirals due to friction. wind pushes a water column one way and the rest follow, eventually going a different direction than the current at the bottom.
What causes floating debris to accumulate near the centers of the gyres? What do we commonly call this effect?The circular motion of the gyre draws debris into this stable center, where it becomes trapped. aka trash vortex.
Besides the gyres, what other type of currents are common in the ocean?transverse currents- currents that flow east to west and west to east, linking eastern and western boundary currents.
What processes act to change the density of ocean water? How does this drive vertical circulation?upwelling brings up dense ocean water from the polar region. vertical currents are driven by density because dense stuff rises due to upwelling.
upwellingoften happens where wind blows along a coastline. The wind causes the water at the ocean surface to move perpendicular to it, away from the coast, because of a process called Ekman transport. When surface water moves away from the coast, water from deeper in the ocean rises up and takes its place.
Where on the planet are deep waters formed? How do we know? deep waters formed at the poles where water is coldest and saltiest. this water is also really old.
What is the global ocean conveyer?How long does one trip around the conveyer take and how does this relate to the mixing time of the ocean?constantly moving system of deep-ocean circulation driven by temperature and salinity. motion is caused by a combination of thermohaline currents (thermo = temperature; haline = salinity) in the deep ocean and wind-driven currents on the surface. Cold, salty water is dense and sinks to the bottom of the ocean while warm water is less dense and remains on the surface. takes 1000 yrs
What causes equatorial upwelling? How does this relate to the Easterly winds and the to the ITCZ? the eckman transport that goes to the right in the north and left in the south causes a part (like in hair) at the equator, the wind produces a perpendicular flow of water away from the equator in both heminspheres. then there is upwelling of cold water from below producing cooler sea at the equator. Easterly (westward) trade winds blow from the Northeast and Southeast and converge along the equator blowing West to form the ITCZ
ekman transportnet motion of water after allowance of summed effects of ekman spiral. in theory it is 90 degrees to the right of the wind direction in the north and 90 to the left in the south.
How does this relate to primary productivity at the equator? Upwelling north and south of the equator allows dense, nutrient rich water from below to come up to the surface
What is coastal upwelling?upwelling adjacent to a coast, induced by wind.
Coastal downwelling?Where Ekman transport moves surface waters toward the coast, the water piles up and sinks in the process known as coastal downwelling.