protodynastic, old kingdom, middle kingdom, new kingdom each w increasing central authority
ways of grouping
(most egalitarian) band- 10 person group, like the ones in space odyssey; tribe- bigger than band, has some sort of leadership; state= strong leader, serves people in exchange for money (most kleptocratic)
how was royalty treated in egypt
pharoahs recieve tributes in pyramids for example great pyramid of khufu. but there was corruption
during neolithic period they made the move to using sophisticated tools, herding, and agriculture
first chinese domesticates
silkworms, peaches, citrus, ducks, rice, pigs, chicken, water buffalo which gave rise to dynastic culture
grand canal of china to control water, great wall of china to keep mongols out.
influenced by culture of the rest of east asia, lots of warfare so they create martial arts such as kung fu
epic of gilgamesh
oldest story ever written down (2000 bce), use clay tablets and cuneiform. it's about king of urok who is great, young, and oppressive. then the sky gods fight him and defeat him with a prostitute allowing gilgamesh the king to gain wisdom
how was writign standardized
first to write
mesopotamian sumerians because they were the first to amass grain so they needed to keep track. the first thing ever written was a recipe for beer
what would people write on
clay tablets, papyrus, parchment, and paper from china in eurasia. since all of these are from eurasia, writing was harder and spread less in the americas
saraswati river and indus river valley. it was the biggest civz area wise
cities in indus river valley
harappa, mojendo daro
technology indus river valley
symbols for writing, advanced urban planning, pottery and metallurgy, trade w mesopotamians, domesticated animals.
why did the idus river valley civz end
aryans attack or the indians could have over exploited the area through deforrestation bc they needed fire for brick, overgrazing, couldve been a drought causing them to move where there is water, flooding, earthquakes.