Es 3 final

eshapeesha's version from 2016-06-07 03:28

new spain

Question Answer
encomienda systemsystem of slave labor in which spaniards taxed indians and made them slaves in exchange for christianizing and protecting them. but they actually just took indian land
mission systemspaniard made missions to spread catholic faith. these missions used tons of indian labor,
proselytizingcatholic priests convert indians to christianity
californialast territory to be colonized and have the mission system imposed, there are 21 missions in new spain
sacred expeditionestablished 9 coastal missions in ca between san diego and san francisco
enviro significancespanish brought european agriculture, catholicism, and disease with them to america which changed the environment of the area. known as the transatlantic transference as they brought ideas, technology, and disease across the atlantic. the settlement of the spanish was successful bc spanish was the primary language and roman catholicism was the primary religion. by the 1700s new spain was fully in place with guns, germs, and steel.

english colonies

Question Answer
mercantalismbringing raw materials over to home country and then selling the finished products back to the places where the materials were taken from.
navidadsettlement made by columbus' sailors out of remains of santa maria in haiti. they later found remains and skulls there
starving timepopulation of 500 reduced to 100, people resorted to cannibalism. tobacco crop helped to rebuild sustainability.
enviro sigchanged the environment in the americas by introducing tech, germs, depleting resources. the puritans altered their enviro by tree cutting and using the resources for personal gain. harsh impacts on enviro bc they needed ideal conditions and resources. english colonies brought industrialization.

british isles

Question Answer
celtsseafaring germanic people with iron weapons and horses. very warlike, religious leaders known as pruides, worked well w romans
hadrians wallbuilt to keep scotts out of southern england
angles, saxonsseafaring germanic people who settled where germans and celts werent
norman conquestmilitary conquest by duke of normandy in the mid 1000s
duke williamdeclared himself king and became known as william the conqueror. taxed his people in order to legitimize his power and control over the pople.
doomsday bookscribes were dispersed to record the worth of peoples land so to tax accordingly
magna cartaensured power to the people, declared separation of power in church and state. pro business and capitalistic econ.
singificancedomesday book and rep gov pushed england towards an industrial revolution which environmentally changed the world forever.

industrial revolution

Question Answer
enlightenmentgreat britain was the center, belief of secularism making people more independent, increased wealth
triangle tradegreat britain, north america, africa
capitalismallows for free trade, most means of production are privately owned and operation for profit. capitalists undergo mass production, the british industry hired laborers, there was a movement to bring workers from fields to factories where people were paid wages. this allowed for mass consumption and mass production starting with textiles using power looms. also began the use of steam power
james wattfirst steam engine of burned wood over a kettle
robert fultontransfers english steam technology to new york boats creating the paddle wheeled steamer.
eli whitney bore precise holes in in rifles to revolutionize weapons industry
pig ironrefined iron used in rifles
environmental significanceearly externalities like ait pollution and mining activities, britain was the first to experience modern environmental problems such as air pollution due to coal

smithian revolution

Question Answer
adam smithprofessor of science of economy. he focused on political economy, which was a bigger picture of global economic activiy
wealth of nationswritten by smith, talks about resource allocation, market capitalism, gov role in markets.
resource allocationhow should resources be distributed to market economy and what is the government's role in all of this.
smiths povsmith felt the market will determine expenditures and government should hold a limited role, and only do stuff with courts, defense and military and no role in market capitalism
invisible handthe invisible hand of market capitalism will guide supply and demand to create and spread wealth and keep world peace.
free marketmarket decides what is important
classical economic theory/mainstream economics no government involvement and trust in the market economy.
neo smithiansbelieve environemtnal regultions limit the growth of economy and disrupt the invisible hand


Question Answer
robert heilbronerwrote the worldly philosophers which was a survey of the lives and contributions of famous economists, notably Adam Smith, Karl Marx, and John Maynard Keynes.
essay on the principles of populationproposed his theory has population is exponentially growing and will result in the overuse of all of our resources, starvation, famine and death which will result in poverty and scarcity
thomas carlylpens the name dismal science
green revolutionuses applied technology, for example irrigation, fertilizer that allows for more food. birth control has also been used to avoid malthus' predictions
zpg movementzero population growth, supported by paul ehrlich and ecological economis
ecological economistwe've already stripped the ecosystem's capability to sustain growth


Question Answer
main beliefsconcerned with who gets what in our captialists economy and believes that the market economy does not distribute wealth fairly.
3 classsesworkers- do labor for low wages,always available and expendible, captialists- managers who hire others to make profit , make marketable product and encourage competition, bad times are a threat. landlords- owners of production, has advantage over the other two groups.
escalatorsworkers do the labor to power the escalator, capitalists constantly fight for higher point and knock eachother down, landlords go smoothly all the way up.
believes smith is at fault bcsmith doesnt adress the issue of distribution of who gets what
corn lawtarriffs to keep food wages high
economic determinismreduce everything to economic terms. (price natural resources)
to protect envirowe must maximize profit by lowering standards and wages and environemtnal safe guards


Question Answer
inspired by1848 peasant revolutions in prussia and austria hungary
hegelbelieves dialectic change will come soon
dialectic materialismlogical progression of history
engelswrites radical literature with marx to create modern ideas of socialism and communism, believes the economy controls everything.
communist manifesto predictsthe socialist revolution during which eventually workers will emerge triumphant and no one can challenge them. there is no government, authority, money, or title.
das kapital Identified relational economic factors- hunter gatherers versus farmers, farmers versus merchants, merchants versus capitalists. capitalists versus workers
cold warcapitalism v socialism which resulted in environemtnal degredation.
1st russian revolutonagaisnt the tsar, and changed system of gov to the elected and briefly empowered duma
resource valuationnatural resources have no value unless they are improved or labored on by humans

iron horse

Question Answer
Railroadsthe first big industrial business
~Transportation revolutionpart of industrial revolution in 1700's. water transportation was most efficient, railroads were more reliable and could carry more
~spinoff industriesrailroad improved other industries because it required more materials (steel, wood, iron, etc.) coal production took off as it was primary source of fuel
~Bessemer process1850's bessemer developed process to smelt iron and blow high air pressure through it to remove impurities and create steel
~london smogsevere air quality problems in mid 1800's due to the massive amounts of coal burning. killed 100's of thousands
~profit maximizationintroduced cost accounting to track every penny to make sure it's getting maximum profit
~hierarchical managementtiered management that all corporations have today, needed to organize to allow for expansion
~the great resource gobblerrailroads were built everywhere even when they weren't really needed
enviro sigessentially created Wall Street, timezones and bulk production. how many resources the wide variety of spin-off industries used to sustain the business. Prior to this, no business had ever used so many resources. (The G.R.G. of the 20th century is the automobile). It created a transatlantic change in technology, culture, and environmental impact due to the amount or resources it used.

luddism :

Question Answer
what did luddists believebelieved that machines were taking their jobs
environmental significance because although the Luddites were rebelling because they were getting replaced by machines, modern Luddism still exists on the basis that resorting back to more natural ways rather than relying on technologies is healthier for the environment. Capitalism, free market, and our continued economic growth have the power to completely destroy our environment if we continue to rely more and more on machines.


Question Answer
early environmentalism
~Romanticslamented that the world was becoming too urban and too controlled. wanted to emphasize the role of nature in the modern world
~over civilizationidea that civilization was moving too fast, nature was losing its place in the world
~primitivismused as a term of appreciation for nature. believed people who lived close to nature were to be celebrated
~transcendentalismreligion developed by RW Emerson. involved about ways to live with god and understand the presence of god in nature
~Margaret fullerauthor of the transcendentalist novel
~Henry Thoreauthought everything in the modern world was a distraction and that we needed to get closer to nature
~preservation movementdealing more with spirituality
~conservation movementdealing more with science. said humans could solve anything using the scientific method
~resource depletionbegan the fear of running out of resources. looked at how rapid development was decreasing our natural supplies
~degradationmajor pollution in England was being seen over in U.S.
~george perkins marshput together data showing that the romans overexploited their resources. said that government had to regulate or else private enterprise would gobble up everything.


Question Answer
what was ypresbattles around belgium in the western front
why did the wars occurgermany was trying to catch up in the colonial race so they expanded their territory and thought england and france would not resist.
ww1 begins wassassination of franz ferdinand heir to the throne of Austria- Hungary, shot by serbian underground group. led to the declaration of war and battles within Europe
alliancesallies- russia, great britain, france
central powersgermany, austria hungary
1st battle of ypreswinston churchill is a foot soldier, machine guns are devastating
2ns battle of ypresintro poison gas, flame throwers, result in stale mate
3rd battle of ypresuse tank and results in many casualties. 915,000 dead and wounded total.


Question Answer
spanish fluterm used for influenza, has questionable origins. death rate really high from 1918-1919 during which 25-40 million died, which was nearly half the world's population
questionable originsinfluenza developed somewhere in Asia. most likely from a swine flu virus, or some mutation from animals
Wartime Conditionsmuch of the world was engaged in war with a high rate of human trafficking from place to place. hygiene, healthcare, and food supply was suffering. soldiers were at high risk of contracting disease.
camp funstonthe disease really spread, also was the first reported case of infleunza
alfred crosbywrote americas forgotten pandemic
albert mitchellpatient 0 who was a cook at camp funston and handeled food.
us public health serviceorganization that was unprepared for the influenza. created masks to try and prevent spreading the disease further. did autopsies on soldiers and found that their lungs had completely died and malfunctioned
woodrow wilsonwants to pass league of nations, caught the flu while negotiating in france and later had a stroke and became invalid for rest of term
fdrcaught flu w double pneunomia, later got polio and never walked again
environmental significanceburying and burning the dead was bad for the environment, shows how globalization leads to environmental consequences.

stalingrad :

Question Answer
what was stalingradbiggest battle in the history of the world, during ww2. germany, soviets, and ussr had a non-aggression pact which hitler broke and invaded the soviets with 15 million troops. hitler bombed and destroyed every city on the way to the east, looking for oil in the caspian sea because their supplies were limited.
Caspian Sea(Stalingrad at the mouth of the volga River and Caspian Sea, 70,000 square miles razed; two million dead)
~Interwar periodtime between ww1 and ww2. the end of ww1 ultimately cause ww2; germany was punished for the war giving room for the rise of a dictator. the great depression in America gave germany time to rebuild
~Adolf Hitlerelected as chancellor leader of the Nazi party.
~joseph stalin1879-1953 leader of the soviets.
~battle of stalingradended Nazi advancement. soviets did everything they could to prevent the nazi's, and the nazi's did everything they could to take over stalingrad. 1 continuous very strategic battle for 8 months. soviets were outnumbered by the germans so they led them into the city and bombed them.
~Lilya lituyaksoviet fighter pilot killed at age 22. did 168 mission during battle with 12 confirmed kills
~great patriot warsoviets believed this was their greatest patriotic battle because 1/4 russians diedmany died or froze to death. eventually the soviets forced germans to leave, ending the battle.
~environmental impact2 million died, 70,000 square miles destroyed, trees destroyed, vegetation and human development was wiped clean, high levels of contamination