system of slave labor in which spaniards taxed indians and made them slaves in exchange for christianizing and protecting them. but they actually just took indian land
spaniard made missions to spread catholic faith. these missions used tons of indian labor,
catholic priests convert indians to christianity
last territory to be colonized and have the mission system imposed, there are 21 missions in new spain
established 9 coastal missions in ca between san diego and san francisco
spanish brought european agriculture, catholicism, and disease with them to america which changed the environment of the area. known as the transatlantic transference as they brought ideas, technology, and disease across the atlantic. the settlement of the spanish was successful bc spanish was the primary language and roman catholicism was the primary religion. by the 1700s new spain was fully in place with guns, germs, and steel.
bringing raw materials over to home country and then selling the finished products back to the places where the materials were taken from.
settlement made by columbus' sailors out of remains of santa maria in haiti. they later found remains and skulls there
population of 500 reduced to 100, people resorted to cannibalism. tobacco crop helped to rebuild sustainability.
changed the environment in the americas by introducing tech, germs, depleting resources. the puritans altered their enviro by tree cutting and using the resources for personal gain. harsh impacts on enviro bc they needed ideal conditions and resources. english colonies brought industrialization.
great britain was the center, belief of secularism making people more independent, increased wealth
great britain, north america, africa
allows for free trade, most means of production are privately owned and operation for profit. capitalists undergo mass production, the british industry hired laborers, there was a movement to bring workers from fields to factories where people were paid wages. this allowed for mass consumption and mass production starting with textiles using power looms. also began the use of steam power
first steam engine of burned wood over a kettle
transfers english steam technology to new york boats creating the paddle wheeled steamer.
bore precise holes in in rifles to revolutionize weapons industry
refined iron used in rifles
early externalities like ait pollution and mining activities, britain was the first to experience modern environmental problems such as air pollution due to coal
concerned with who gets what in our captialists economy and believes that the market economy does not distribute wealth fairly.
workers- do labor for low wages,always available and expendible, captialists- managers who hire others to make profit , make marketable product and encourage competition, bad times are a threat. landlords- owners of production, has advantage over the other two groups.
workers do the labor to power the escalator, capitalists constantly fight for higher point and knock eachother down, landlords go smoothly all the way up.
believes smith is at fault bc
smith doesnt adress the issue of distribution of who gets what
tarriffs to keep food wages high
reduce everything to economic terms. (price natural resources)
to protect enviro
we must maximize profit by lowering standards and wages and environemtnal safe guards
part of industrial revolution in 1700's. water transportation was most efficient, railroads were more reliable and could carry more
railroad improved other industries because it required more materials (steel, wood, iron, etc.) coal production took off as it was primary source of fuel
1850's bessemer developed process to smelt iron and blow high air pressure through it to remove impurities and create steel
severe air quality problems in mid 1800's due to the massive amounts of coal burning. killed 100's of thousands
introduced cost accounting to track every penny to make sure it's getting maximum profit
tiered management that all corporations have today, needed to organize to allow for expansion
~the great resource gobbler
railroads were built everywhere even when they weren't really needed
essentially created Wall Street, timezones and bulk production. how many resources the wide variety of spin-off industries used to sustain the business. Prior to this, no business had ever used so many resources. (The G.R.G. of the 20th century is the automobile). It created a transatlantic change in technology, culture, and environmental impact due to the amount or resources it used.
although the Luddites were rebelling because they were getting replaced by machines, modern Luddism still exists on the basis that resorting back to more natural ways rather than relying on technologies is healthier for the environment. Capitalism, free market, and our continued economic growth have the power to completely destroy our environment if we continue to rely more and more on machines.
lamented that the world was becoming too urban and too controlled. wanted to emphasize the role of nature in the modern world
idea that civilization was moving too fast, nature was losing its place in the world
used as a term of appreciation for nature. believed people who lived close to nature were to be celebrated
religion developed by RW Emerson. involved about ways to live with god and understand the presence of god in nature
author of the transcendentalist novel
thought everything in the modern world was a distraction and that we needed to get closer to nature
dealing more with spirituality
dealing more with science. said humans could solve anything using the scientific method
began the fear of running out of resources. looked at how rapid development was decreasing our natural supplies
major pollution in England was being seen over in U.S.
~george perkins marsh
put together data showing that the romans overexploited their resources. said that government had to regulate or else private enterprise would gobble up everything.
term used for influenza, has questionable origins. death rate really high from 1918-1919 during which 25-40 million died, which was nearly half the world's population
influenza developed somewhere in Asia. most likely from a swine flu virus, or some mutation from animals
much of the world was engaged in war with a high rate of human trafficking from place to place. hygiene, healthcare, and food supply was suffering. soldiers were at high risk of contracting disease.
the disease really spread, also was the first reported case of infleunza
wrote americas forgotten pandemic
patient 0 who was a cook at camp funston and handeled food.
us public health service
organization that was unprepared for the influenza. created masks to try and prevent spreading the disease further. did autopsies on soldiers and found that their lungs had completely died and malfunctioned
wants to pass league of nations, caught the flu while negotiating in france and later had a stroke and became invalid for rest of term
caught flu w double pneunomia, later got polio and never walked again
burying and burning the dead was bad for the environment, shows how globalization leads to environmental consequences.
biggest battle in the history of the world, during ww2. germany, soviets, and ussr had a non-aggression pact which hitler broke and invaded the soviets with 15 million troops. hitler bombed and destroyed every city on the way to the east, looking for oil in the caspian sea because their supplies were limited.
(Stalingrad at the mouth of the volga River and Caspian Sea, 70,000 square miles razed; two million dead)
time between ww1 and ww2. the end of ww1 ultimately cause ww2; germany was punished for the war giving room for the rise of a dictator. the great depression in America gave germany time to rebuild
elected as chancellor leader of the Nazi party.
1879-1953 leader of the soviets.
~battle of stalingrad
ended Nazi advancement. soviets did everything they could to prevent the nazi's, and the nazi's did everything they could to take over stalingrad. 1 continuous very strategic battle for 8 months. soviets were outnumbered by the germans so they led them into the city and bombed them.
soviet fighter pilot killed at age 22. did 168 mission during battle with 12 confirmed kills
~great patriot war
soviets believed this was their greatest patriotic battle because 1/4 russians diedmany died or froze to death. eventually the soviets forced germans to leave, ending the battle.
2 million died, 70,000 square miles destroyed, trees destroyed, vegetation and human development was wiped clean, high levels of contamination
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