Es 1 part 2

eshapeesha's version from 2016-10-20 02:40


Question Answer
technology or design standardsmandates the use of a certain technology or design that represents the state of the art in pollution reduction.
performance based standardsstandards that set emissions targets. these have the benefit of flexibility since the focus can be specific or broad, polluters adopt the approach that works best for them, but still requires on going monitoring
market oriented approachescreating economic incentives for better performance. inc taxes, trading schemes such as cap and trade, and subsidies. beloved by industry, but can be costly and for gov and society if not administered properly.
so2 and cap and tradelimitted in the 1990s since it along with nitrogen cause acid rain. 2006 emissions down by 40%!
voluntary approachesfirms, institutions to set their own standards. inc frequent public- private consultation, requires some level of public discolure of info, certification and labeling programs, beloved by industry, aided by threat of future regulation
CA assembly bill 322006, uses many approaches, sought to reduce statewide greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 using tax incentives, new regulations, state fed cooperation, encourages renewable energy development, conservation. been replaced to reduce emissions 40% by 2030!
yucca mountainin the 40s they wanted to make atomic weapons accessible since oil is a limited source. but theres the issue of where to keep atomic waste. underground geologic storage was proposed, but 3 mile island made people skeptical. there was top down imposition as well as bottom up advocation. dpt of energy ends up dealing with it, and they decide to put waste in yucca mountain but it was never opened bc questionable geologic stability, local pop close, movement of groundwater.
threat of nuclear wasteinvisible, delayed, distant, indirect to human health
environmental policy involvesbureaucratic and stakeholder based decision making.
how are laws enacted and enforcedstates are sovereign with general police power.
supremacy clausestate laws superceded by enumerated federal powers.
fed gov powerscommerce clause, treaty power, property power.
states powerpublic trust doctrine- certain resources reserved for public use and states must maintain them for perpetuity.
institutional diversity and redundancywe have many government institutions all working on enviro and natural issues such as us forest service and bureau of land management, and national park service.
organic acta conflicting mandate saying there will be federal parks that are unimpared and for human use. hmmmm
judicial reviewconsiders questions like whether plaintiffs have legal standing, would a court ruling redress any harms imposed by defendant?
hist of amer enviro law1800 wild west w econ liberalism; 1900progressive era- conservation and bureaucratic expansion, 1960enviro era- new fed laws, agencies, and concerns; 1990sstruggle and reofrm- legislative gridlock, new pathways; now current era- contd gridlock, resource scarcity, non gov governance.
policies of environmental era1964 wilderness act, 1969 nepa, 1970 clean air act, 1972 clean water act, 1973 esa, 1980 superfund, 1982 nuclear waste policy act.
NEPArequires enviro impact statement of major projects to significantly affect the quality of the human enviro. this opens up decision making, disclosure of neg impacts, and potential mitigation
CA assembly bill 32reduce statewide greenhouse gas emission back to 1990 levels by 2020
paris climate change conference requires action by all nations and updated plans every 5 yrs after 2020

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