Equine Med- Nutrition

wilsbach's version from 2016-02-17 23:28

This lecture she just talked at us instead of doing the ppt. So This is the things she talked about

Question Answer
you go to a farm and see a fat fat fat pony. Should you be all judgey?no-- its SUPER hard to keep these guys at a good BCS
how do crude fiber and energy content relate?high crude fiber means low energy, and vice versa
which vitamins are essential for horses?VITAMIN E AND A- they can't make it for themselves
fat soluble vitamins?ADEK
what should the Ca:P ratio be like, and what foods are high in each of these? What if this ratio is off?at least 2:1 Ca:P. Grains are high in P and alfalfa is high in Ca... If too much P and not enough Ca, get "big head dz" (nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism)
how is protein as a calorie source for horses?not a good energy source. concentrate has about 10-12%
how is fat as an energy source for horses?actually pretty decent. normal grass has only 2-3% fat, but you can get them onto higher fat levels if you work them up slowly. And too much sugar can make them hyper but fat wont. *dont give fat to ponies tho, theyre fat enough
if a pony or horse is fat, what situation/dz must you be careful about? if overweight and stop eating, can get hyperlipidemia which can be fatal!
what are problems spring grass can cause?Can cause many problems- it is high in simple sugars and protein. Excess protein can cause gas colic and excess simple sugars can lead to metabolic dz (probs with insulin/ vascular issues) and all these things can lead to laminitis. and Fructaines (types of simple sugars in lush grass) def play a role in laminitis developing
if you wanna avoid high fructaines in grass because you are worried about laminitis, how can you schedule the horse's eating?fructane conc is lowest during morning in the glass, so if wanna put horse out, do it early in the morning.

This is the ppt

Question Answer
Horses are grazing animals- how do the seasons affect their grazing bh?9-14 hrs/day is spend grazing-- Amount depends on feed availability and season. spring 62% of time / summer 40%. autumn more time searching feed, winter: less activity (saving energy)
she said about how much roughage do horses need in terms of their bodyweight?about 1-2% of their bodyweight in roughage a day
what is the equine nature in which they graze?"Step, bite, step"
two things you need to make sure you manage about the pasture they are grazing inneed time for grass (not weeds) to regrow, and need to remove feces
walking a lot is a normal part of equine bh. How does being stabled (dec in walking) affect their health?3 times more risk for colic, significant reduced gut motility (Also influenced by ratio- if they get more concentrate than hay)
how does social bh of horse affect their eating?they are social animals! They want to eat together. It reduces stress (possibly help them chew better?)
explain how giving a large amount of concentrate is bad for them, in terms of how their GI anatomy isquick passage through sm int so large amt of concentrates not absorbed effectively...then it reaches colon, promote bad microbial growth, pH goes down, motility goes down
what are some signs that bad dentition might be a cause of the horse's nutritional problems?They are quidding (dropping their food), and their manure has big pieces of roughage in it, they arent chewing the way they should be
Chewing is super important in the horse. What makes it so important?Saliva only released during actual chewing movements! Saliva is buffer for stomach acids. Continuously production of stomach acids= typical horse! not enough chewing= ULCER RISK
how long will a horse be fasted before you start to see impairment of the stomach mucosa?(since chewing= saliva= pH buffer) Fasting >6 hours impairs stomach mucosa
what drug did she say is good for stomach ulcers in horses?omeprazole
explain nonstructural vs structural carbsnon= simple sugars. Structural= complex carbs/roughage
what is the mucosa of the non glandular stomach like, what is the pH, what does it do?squamous epithelium, no absorption, no secretion, pH: 6-7, no protection against stomach acids
what is the mucosa of the glandular stomach like, what is the pH, what does it do?Parietal cells, zymogen cells, enterochromaffine cells all here. pH gradient 6-7, 4-5, 1-2 as you go down. It has Protection against acids: mucus, bicarbonate buffering, adequate blood supply (cell turn over)... and produces 1.5liter/ hour of stomach juices!
the small intestine of the adult horse is 21 to 25 m long! About how long is passage time? What happens in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum?passage time: 45 min to 2 hrs. Duodenum – mixing and neutralising. Jejunum + ileum – digestion and absorption...... Enzymatic breakdown also occurs here, breaking down protein, fat, starch and sugar. Also absorbs some minerals and vitamins
what is the small intestine really good at digesting?FAT! adult horses have pretty high levels of Lipase in their sm int from the pancreas, and MUCH lower levels of amylase in their sm int from the pancreas... meaning their sm int has a better capacity to digest fat than starches
horses are HIND GUT fermentors. so what is happening in their hind gut (cecum and colon)?Microbial fermentation is occurring, which breaks down the food into volatile fatty acids (VFA) (acetate, butyrate and propionate) and also produces gasses: CO2 and methane. Also the microbes make B-vitamins and Vitamin K
what is the pH of the large intestine, and why?6-7, because of secretion of bicarbonate and phosphate-salts. This allows rapid absorption of VFAs
****how much water does neigh neigh need?50ml / kg / day
Nutritional requirements of most horses may be met by... feeding good quality hay / pasture, water and a trace mineral salt block
*****what is the ideal amount of fiber a horse should be getting every day?1.5-2% (so 500 kg horse needs about 7.5- 10kg hay/day)
what are some sources of fiber for horses?grass (pasture), hay/haylage, silage, round bales, straw, beet pulp (nice alternative to traditional stemmy stuff, make sure you soak it enough or it can cause an obstruction), bran, complete feeds (specialty diets which include fiber)
oats, corn, molasses, concentrated, grains are all examples of what kinda carbs? What problem is associated with these feeds?These are all Non-structural carbohydrates, which are a well known cause of COLIC! This can happen if there is incomplete prececal digestion, so then specialized microbes for NSCs proliferate and they produce products which cause the pH of the colon to drop, which can lead to dysmotility and buildup of gas (colic just waiting to happen)
what are the advantages and disadvantages of NSCs?Advantages: Provide rapidly available energy, Good for horses in heavy work / lactating / thin. DISadvantages: Easy keepers (EMS- equine metabolic syndrome, PPID- pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, Obese)--> laminitis risk!! (easy keepers is horsey term for fatty McFattersons-- basically horses which get obese easily)
how much is too much non-structural carbs?2g starch / kg bwt is maximum- Split grain feedings in 3-4 meals a day
how common is fat in the horse's diet? What kinda fats/sources? What are its benefits? What kinda fat can you feed a horse?Horses typically consume < 2-3% fat/day, but today many feeds are supplemented with fat because it is a Important source of energy without CH overload. Fat is Required for absorption of fat soluble vitamins! (ADEK!). Corn oil/ vegetable oil / safflower oil are often used. Horses slowly adapt to fat in diet, and can be fed up to one cup twice daily (fats can contain omega 3 and 6 fatty acids- yay!)
*how much water does a horse need in a day?50ml / kg / day
which dietary protein is critical for foal growth?lysine
what are feeds with high dietary protein?Legumes (alfalfa, soy beans), seeds (esp oil seeds)
how much of the diet should protein be?7-20%
what are the two ESSENTIAL (they can't make it themselves and need it in the diet) vitamins?(1) Vitamin A (2) Vitamin E (both fat soluble-- all essential)
*Vitamin A is an ESSENTIAL nutrient. Aka? Where do you find it in the body? What functions does it serve? what kinda food should you feed to inc the intake? Who might you wanna supplement this in?Vitamin A is beta-caroteen to retinol. It is stored in the liver (only a 3-6mo supply) and is used for Vision, bone/muscle growth, reproduction, skin health. It is found in leafy can consider supplementing in Young / growing (poor placental transport)
*Vitamin E is an ESSENTIAL nutrient. Aka? what are its functions? What parts of the diet supply this vitamin?aka alfa-tocopherol. Its functions are as a Essential antioxidant, enhances immune function. you can find it in high quality hay and grains
Why do horses need vit D? How do horses get Vit D?Essential for Ca/P absorption from the small intestines, and cellular differentiation. Horses can get vit d via UV light exposure interacts with Vit D precursors in skin. So, they will not have to supplement if access to UV light and feeding quality feed
where is Vitamin K stored in the body? What role does it play in the body? What sources of vit K are there for the horse?Stored in liver, plays a role in blood coagulation, horses can get vit K from Forage feeds / colonic microbes
What is Vit B1 named? what role does it play in the body, where do horses get this vitamin?B1= thiamine. It plays a role in nerve transmission, and can be got from Colonic microbes/ forage
what is Vit B2 named? what role does it play in the body?aka Riboflavin, ATP synthesis / lipid metabolism
what is vit B7 called?biotin
what is vit B12 called? what role does it play in the body?aka Cobalamin, does RBC synthesis (with folate)
vitamin C is aka? what role does it play in the body?aka Ascorbic acid, it is an antioxidant
what are the MACROMINERALS and what sources do they come from?Calcium (forage), Phosphorus (grain), Magnesium (forage), Sodium (salt lick), Chloride (salt lick), Potassium (forage)
what are microminerals?Copper, Zinc, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Selenium (soil dependent)
The Ca:P ratio is ESP IMPORTANT IN _________ horses, and what should the ratio be??ESP IMPORTANT IN GROWING HORSES! Ratio should be >1.5-2:1
explain easy keepers with a "thrifty" genebasically, these horses are genetically made to try to store fat in order to survive winters. These genetics allow more fat depots with the same amount of energy intake as other horses
**what is the minimum length of fiber a horse should have, what is the reasoning behind this?> 2 cm fiber length stimulates chewing activity= roughage!
**what is a horse's minimum crude fiber requirement? (crude fiber is not the same as roughage or fiber structure)5 g CF/kg BW..... **As minimum: 1 kg dm roughage/100 kg BW**
To be safe, Feed no more than ____ concentrate/grain per meal (What are we concerned about?)no more than 2 kg (pony 1 kg) --this will reduce risk of stomach ulcers, inc digestibility in small intestine, and reduce the risk of starch overload to large intestine
how frequently should you feed a horse?If possible feed roughage ad libitum
what is the MAX amount of time you should fast a horse (if you are trying to change their BCS and such)reduce fasting periods to max 6 hours (maybe 8 in the night)
If you want to have a horse slow down its eating, what can you do?use slowfeeders to increase time of feed intake
**remember-- you should feed AT LEAST how much DM roughage?Feed at least 1 kg dm roughage/100 kg BW
**remember-- feed MAX how much concentrates/grains PER MEAL?Feed max 2 kg concentrates/grains per meal (pony 1 kg) (Never feed more kilograms of concentrate then roughage per day)
**remember-- max time of fasting?6hr
how often should you change over the ration for the horse?Change ration (including new batch of roughage) in 4-5 days
horses should be turned out for AT LEAST how much time a day?Turn out horse at least 4 hours a day (paddock or pasture)
what are the daily energy requirements of a horse?DE= 16Mcal / day or 32 kcal / kg / day
what is a high performance horse?Show horses, Race horses, Working horses. Common misunderstanding of “ignorant” owners……pleasure riding is NOT high performance.
what age is considered an adult horse?>2 years
If a horse is geriactric, (>20 years old), where do you want their BCS to be? what are their main health concerns?maintain BCS= 4.5-6 (/9). most concerned for Kidneys, heart, lungs, teeth
what are "complete feeds" and who are they good for, why?Good for geriatric horses- they are Easy to chew and swallow, Highly palatable, Dust free, have 12-16% protein, Provide essential vitamins / minerals, High quality fiber to aid digestion, and can have Increased fat if necessary to maintain weight
If a high performance horse still needs more energy (is losing weight, is fatigued) but they are at the max limit for non-soluble carbs, what can you do to get them more energy?add fat
**** you need to know how to calc this: ex) Horse, 500kg BW, no exercise. Their ration is 25kg fresh grass/day, 300g fresh beetpulp/day.... (grass:18% CP. Beet: 10% CP) Calculate CP intake and compare to CP requirement. (CP requirement of 500 kg horse is 630g/CP/day)Start with grass- 18% of grass is CP, and there is 25kg of grass.... 25kg x 0.18= 4.5 Kg protein in grass. And they need 630g a day which is we have already met our minimum with just the grass
how often should you feed a horse?AT LEAST twice daily
**remember-- horses need fiber. How much do they need for their bodyweight, how much should the feed be composed of?>1% BWT and > 50% diet= fiber
you should feed by _________ and not by ___feed by weight not volume