Equine Med- Intro and PE

wilsbach's version from 2016-02-17 12:11


Question Answer
where do you start your PE- head or tail? Left or Right?Horses at the head, they don't like having someone come up from behind them. (it's cows who don't like the head being touched). Also you want to start on the L just because that is the side theyre mounted/lead by so it is normal to them.
If you want to pass from the L to the R side, how do you walk around them?keep your hand on them so they can feel where you are and not get spooked, and then stay CLOSE not an arms length away bc then if they kick, they are just pushing you-- she says passing in front near their head is safer than from behind
what are the core horse vx?WEE, EEE, WNV, Tetanus, rabies
what are the main horse deworming meds? what is the big prob with dewormers?prob is RESISTANCE! Use ivermectin and praziquantel (tapeworms), fenbendazole, pyrantel
what are the best questions to ask for your hxobv SIGNALMENT, herd health questions: (other animals on property / ages? / groups? deworming / vaccination schedule?), Diet (recent changes?), Exercise (any recent changes?), Current medication
curly haired horse, think...Cushings (there is one horse with curly hair tho so don't get confused)
reasons traveling can inc dz..stress + their head is fixed up, meaning they cant lower it and clear pathogens
what is the scale for the BCS for a horse?1-9
loosely describe how to do a BCS on a horseat level of neck you're looking for deposition of fat-- need to really palpate, give a good squeeze. Then withers-- most horses wont have fat on withers. Ribs- should be able to feel them. if can see, score below five. if can't see them, 5 or above (ribs are most reliable part of getting BCS.) Then point of shoulder....where is it? (just behind triceps and just before you can really palpate the ribs) so just behind triceps, bit higher....if fat horse, check pics of fat ponies, will see fat bulging there. If back is level, how reliable is this? depends on amount of mm bc exercise--- if no exercise, wont have a level back bc dec in mm....doesn't really mean they have a low BCS. And then tail head (make sure horse is a nice horse if you do this)
List of things you should check when examining the headOcular / nasal discharge, Facial symmetry, Airflow from nostrils, Tº of muzzle / ears, Mucous membranes, Brief oral inspection (aging), Peripheral pulse pressure, Lymph nodes, Brief neurologic exam (CRANIAL NERVES!- need to know for OSCES too)
what are the lymphnodes you should be checking?submandibular, retropharengeal (prefemoral and prescapular usually not checked, rare to have probs here)
what is viborgs triangle? what should it look like on a normal horse?It is the boundaries of the gutteral pouch. Look for swellings in this area to indicate problems (should be flat) Rostral: ramus of mandible. Ventral: linguofacial vein. Caudodorsal: tendon of sternocephalicus mm
where do we usually check the pulse on the head?transverse facial artery, or under the mandibular rim (but difficult)
what are the structures you should be checking in the horse's throat latch? Guttural pouch, Retropharyngeal lnn, Skin tenting, Palpation Larynx, Palpate neck muscles.... and never forget the trachea (sounds diff from lung sounds, worth checking)
where can you skin tent to assess hydration?throat latch
where's the retropharyngeal ln? Submandibular?
CQ: would you use the saphenous vein to place a cath?no, small and hard to approach
CQ: If it's a yearling horse, what is the major GI parasite?parascaris equorum
where is the spinal column in the horse?just above the jugular furrow
Where is the primary site for IM injections in the horse?This triangle which has no name... IT IS NOT VIBORGS!!! It is borders of the nuchal lig, spinal column, and scapula.
primary site for venipuncture is?jugular V
where do you start (low or high) on a Jugular venipuncture?DONT start at lowest level and go up-- prefer to start at upper third bc mm between jug and artery so help prevent arterial sample
what size syringe do you usually use to collect blood?18 or 20 gauge, 1-1.5 inch
what are the venipuncture sites in horses?JUGULAR, cephalic , lateral thoracic
what are the landmarks for thoracic auscultation? If you need to hear the lung sounds better, what can you do?(horse has 18 ribs!) basically from caudal edge of triceps, lateral edge of epaxial mm, and 5th costochondral junction to dorsal end of 17th rib as a gently curved line. DON'T FORGET THE TRACHEA!!!! If you want to hear their lung sounds better, use a rebreathing bag
horse heart rate?24 - 44bpm
horse resp rate?8 – 15 bpm
horse temp?99 – 101.5 F (save this for last-- taking temp can raise HR)
where do you place your stethoscope to ascult horse's heart?P-A-M 3-4-5...basically shove it in their armpit behind their triceps
what is the physiological (normal) murmur in a horse?2nd degree AV block (dropped beat)
horse's nostrils should not be ___ as it means they are struggling to breathewide open
what should horse breathing be like?quiet with effortless chest excursions
***GI tract-- you should listen to the abdomen in all 4 quadrants. What are the 4 quadrants and what is in them for you to listen to??UPPER LEFT: left dorsal colon. UPPER RIGHT: ileocecal valve. LOWER LEFT: small intestine and left ventral colon. LOWER RIGHT: cecum, right ventral colon, small intestine (listening in the blue circle)
do you palpate limbs prox to distal or distal to prox?Palpation proximal to distal
how do you check for signs of laminitis?check Digital pulse (is it bounding?), Coronary band, Hoof capsules (Are they hot?), Lift each foot (will they not lift a foot?), Turn horse in small circles (will they do it? will they limp if they do?)
where is the horse's digital artery?
last thing you do in a PE?temperature-- it will mess up HR and make them generally pissed at you