Equine Med- Infectious and Neuro Diseases 1

wilsbach's version from 2016-04-30 23:10

Infectious----- A very special thank you to kristen for the chart

Question Answer
reportable?EVA, vesicular stomatitis
ZoonoticVesicular stomatitis, lepto
Ticksequine granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Lyme, equine piroplasmosis
What is the etiology of Equine infectious anemia? How are they infected?Retrovirus/lentivirus Transmission is via biting insects (not arbovirus tho), iatrogenic, vertical, venereal. Infection of ~monocytes and endothelial cells
what cells does EIA like to infect?monocytes and endothelial cells
what are the presentations/ clinical signs of EIA?Acute, chronic, or inapparent carriers are presentations. Vasculitis, edema, fever, weakness, jaundice, petechia, epistaxis, abortion, edema, hemolytic anemia, OR NO CS at all! DIC, myocardial dz, or enterocolitis, leukoencepahlitis but rare.
how do you dx EIA? (gold standard?)Coggins-gold standard, ELISA, CBC/Chem/UA
why dependant edema in EIA?bc vasculitis bc infect monocytes and endothelial cells
Coggins is GSdx for what dz?EIA. core protein Ag, p26 (coggins from pinocchio was anemic)
tx, prevention, prog for EIA?No specific tx available! Asymptomatic therapies. Grave prognosis.Quarantine + animals and exposed animals. Need 2 negative test results 30 days apart to be considered normal. Prevent by annually testing, eps new arrivals, fly control, don’t reuse needles, clean equipment.
Equine Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis etiology? how are they infected?Caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum- a rickettsial agent. Transmission via Ixodes ticks or blood transfusion. Infects granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils). Also infects dogs, donkeys, rats, llamas.
CSs of equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis?Fever, depression, ataxia, decr appetite, limb edema, petechia, icterus
how can you dx equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis?Blood smear-cytoplasmic IBs= morulae, PCR (most accurate), IFAT, Ab titers
which dz has cytoplasmic inclusion bodies called morulae?equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis
how do you tx equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis?Oxytet (NOT DOXY- THIS IS LARGE ANIMALS HERE) IV for 8 days. Dex if severe ataxia and edema. Risk for laminitis is low
prevention/prog of equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis?Excellent Prognosis- abx can eliminate infection. NO carrier states. Immunity lasts for 2 yrs. Tick control for prevention.
what is bloodwork look like with equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis?can see a pancytopenia. see very low platelets- typical for this dz.
etiology/presentation of equine lymphoma(/lymphosarcoma)? age affected?Malignant clonal expansion of lymphoid cells from BM, thymus, LNs, or spleen. 4 forms: Multicentric- most common, Alimentary, Cutaneous, Mediastinal. Age 4-10 yrs old
how common is equine lymphoma?most common equine hematopoietic neoplasia.
most common form of equine lymphoma?multicentric (other forms are alimentary, cutaneous, and mediastinal)
which part of the bowel is affected by alimentary equine lymphoma?small intestine
which equine lymphoma is more common in younger horses?alimentary (rollie was younger too)
CSs of equine lymphoma-- specify which form for what CSsCan see in general, fever, poor BCS, ventral edema, LNpathy. (1) Multicentric/generalized is the most common form. See Generalized LNpathy. CNS and ocular signs. (2) alimentary: <5yr. SMALL bowel. PLE. ventral edema and ascites. (3) mediastinal: resp system signs (dyspnea, coughing) modified transudate as a pleural effusion. (4) Cutaneous- seen as SQ nodules (head, limbs, trunk perineum), not very common
what does blood work look like with equine lymphoma?anemia, leukocytosis, ↑ fibrinogen, ↑ globulins, ↓ albumin if PLE, other organ dysfunction depending on sites affected
dx for equine lympoma?PREFERRED DX is FNA will see Monomorphic Lymphoblasts and other cellular signs of malignancy.
how do you tx equine lymphoma?tx palliative, not curative: Sx excision for solitary tumors, chemotherapy: single or multidrugs- BAGL side effects. Radiotherapy can cause localized side effects of skin/hair-->leukotrichia
prog of equine lymphoma?T cell worse than B cell. no risk factors/genetics known. Prog heavily depends on staging and phenotype and if it's T cell
what ocular sign can you see with equine lymphoma?CHEMOSIS (corneal edema)
etiology of equine viral arteritis? How is it transmitted?arteriviridae (...well it does cause arteritis), Direct transmission via aerosolization from inf horses, indirectly from fomites, CARRIER stallions from mating or AI chilled or frozen semen.
Which dx has a testosterone dependant carrier state?EVA!!! (Eva had balls....but that's nobody's business)
CSs of EVA?Most infections are inapparent! Fever, depression, leukopenia, peri-orbital edema, resp dz: rhinitis, nasal/ocular discharge, conjunctivitis. Edema of limbs, ventrum, prepruce or scrotum, urticaria. Preg mares: Abortion.....Foals: pneumonia....Stallions: virus lives in sex glands-testosterone dependent carrier state!!
dx of EVA?Virus Isolation and neutralization: gold standardPaired Titers, test semen samples from stallions. If stallion neutralizing ab titer > 1.4 can be potential carrier
how do you know if a stallion if a EVA carrier? how can you try to elim carrier state?If stallion neutralizing ab titer > 1.4 can be potential carrier....castrate or give GnRH antagonists to dec testosterone
tx for EVA?No specific tx. Infected horses recover. Symptomatic tx: NSIADs, diuretics, abx if needed. Stallions- reduce testosterone via castration or GnRH antagonists
prog of EVA?Prognosis is good- cleared w/i 28 after infection except PI stallions. VX available! Test for EAV before vx-certificate for non-carrier state bc vx interferes with testing. Vx 60 days prior to breeding. Have good biosecurity and quarantine.REPORTABLE!!!!
is there a vx for EVA?yes- interferes with testing
etiology of vesicular stomatitis? how is it transmitted?rhabdoviridae, vesiculovirus-- NJ and indiana subtypes. (Also infects, cattle, pigs, small rumis and HUMANS), xmission can be direct contact, fomites, or biting insects, water or food. Mostly in SW states summer/fall seasons. Neuron tropism. Can be associated with water nearby.
tropism of vesicular stomatitis?neuron tropism- makes sense, its a rhabdoviridae
CSs of vesicular stomatitis?Blisters-leading to ulcers on lips, mouth nose, tongue. Hypersalivation ((LOTS OF SALIVA), quidding, fever, low BCS, Laminitis. PPL: headache, fatigue, fever, mm pain
Dx of choice for vesicular stomatitis? other options?Virus neutralization-test of choice. Others: ELISA, CF, virus isolation, PCR—tests performed in government labs- bc DDX from FMD!! ELISA is good for screening tests.
tx for vesicular stomatitis?no specific treatment- supportive. Feed soft foods and give NSAIDs. Monitor for 2nd bact inf
Prog of vesicular stomatitis?Good prognosis Reduce exposure to insects and streams, rivers. Quarantine. Reportable!!!!
etiology of lyme- how do they get it?Borrelia burgdorferi- gram neg spirochete. Transmission via Ixodes ticks. Deer are final hosts. with white footed mouse being reservoir host. Other mammals/ppl are other hosts.
CS of lyme?Non specific: Fever, Weight loss, Shifting leg lameness**, Hyperesthesia, limb edema. CNS and ocular signs. Can have co-infection w/ A.phaygocytopholum (*MAJORITY OF INFECTED DON'T SHOW CSs)
IH and DH of lyme? vector?IH is small mammals (mouse) DH is deer. Vector is IXODES tick
how do you dx lyme?C6 snap test. Cornell test looks at OSPc acute. OSPF is chronic. Also IFA/ELISA, westen blot, PCR
C6 protein for snapLYME (I would like 6 lymes please)
how do you tx lyme?TETRACYCLINES! If CNS involvement- IV pen G or ceftriaxone. Treat edema and polyarthritis- support of limbs, NSAIDs
prog of lyme dz?Acute dz-can recover w/i 1 week of tx. Chronic-if polyarthritis may not return to work. Vx not licensed for horses. Prevent ticks, rodent control, grooming
etiology of lepto? how is it spread?Gram neg spirochete. L. interrogans Pomona and L. kirschneri Grippotyphosa are most pathogenic bc horses are incidental hosts. Horses are maintenance hosts for L. interrogans Bratislava. Infection from wildlife resevoirs from infected urine or water to MM. ZOONOTIC
which strains of lepto are incidental for horses? which are maintainance? which is horse?INCIDENTAL= WORSE CSs. the incidental strains are pomona and grippotyphosa (this dz is DEF not PG...yikes). Maintenance= bratislava (horses probably end up in bratwursts)
CSs of lepto?Effected organs: Eyes*, kidneys, repro tract. Late term abortions, stillbirths or weak icteric foal w/ kidney and liver dz. Rare cause of renal dz in horses-but can have signs of acute renal failure due to vasomotor nephropathy. Equine recurrent uveitis- moon blindness.
which dz is associated with Equine recurrent uveitis?lepto (appaloosas!!!)
what does lepto look like on biochem?acute renal failure signs like azotemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia etc.
what does lepto look like on UA?: isosthenuria, proteinuria, casts, WBCs/RBCs.
Dx of lepto?IFAT or IHC of placenta or fetus. Paired Titers. PCR of urine of body fluids. Ocular exam- uveitis w/ other ocular signs-edema or cataracts
tx for lepto?IV fluids and correct electrolytes. ABX! Isolate aborting mares and proper disposal of fetus. Cyclosporine suprachoroidal implants for the ERU
prog of lepto?Prognosis depends on severity of dz: guarded w/ hepatic or renal involvement. Mares recover from repro infections. Optho cases may not recover. Prevention by decreasing wildlife contact and contaminated water sources. Lepto vx available for Pomona serovar but routine vx is controversial.
etiological agent of pigeon fever? How is it transmitted?Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. G + bacteria, enters through abrasions or MM-travels to lymphatics and survive in WBCs. Can be spread by flies (hence in summer and fall). HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH PIGEONS (pigeons do fly
3 forms of pigeon fever? which is most common?Ulcerative lymphangitis of the limb, internal infection, **external abscess (most common<--swollen breasts make it look like a pigeon. THIS is why its called this)
CSs of pigeon fever? (note which form)(1) ulcerative lymphangitis: lameness, swelling of ***hind limbs and draining tracts (pigeons only have back legs!). (2) Internal infection: rare but high fatality rate- abscesses in liver,spleen,kidney,lungs. (3) External abscesses: pigeon breast- in pectoral region- stiff when walking, fever(good prognosis).
how do you dx pigeon fever?Bacterial culture on blood agar, US, CBC/Chem, test soil and shavings. SHY/SHIT test (sepcific test)
shy/shit test for...?pigeon fever
tx for pigeon fever?Ulcerative lymphangitis: Aggressive tx, abx, NSAIDs. Internal inf: long term abx. Ext abscess: Lance and drain (careful about infecting environment!)
px/ prevention for pigeon fever?px: POOR for internal infection, good for external abscesses. No vx available in US. Appropriate biosecurity, insect repellants, wound care, proper disposal of abscess contents
etiology of purpura hemorrhagica?Hemorrhage and edema from hypersenstitivity reaction. Caused most commonly by strangles, influenza, vaccine for strangles. Type 3 HS rx. WBCs release enzymes that damage blood vessels.
what type of hypersensitivity reaction is purpura hemorrhagica?TYPE 3 (immune complexes!)
CSs of purpura hemorrhagica?Recent resp infection -> SC pitting edema in periphery, swollen head, lame, depressed, stiff, petechia on mm, fever, sloughing skin.
Dx of purpura hemorrhagica?CS, CBC/Chem, endoscopy of guttural pouch for strangles, skin biopsy, ELISA, PCR. Histo - leukoclastic vasculitis in skin and affected tissues.
tx of purpura hemorrhagica?remove antigenic stimulant, supportive
px of purpura hemorrhagica?aggressive prolonged therapy, at risk for SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome)
which dz puts at risk for systemic inflammatory response syndrome?purpura hemorrhagica
**what should you know about the Strep equi vx?dont give if they have a high titer, because it can precipitate a purpura hemorrhagica episode.
etiology of equine piroplasmosis? how do they get it?Tick borne. ixodes tick bites horse and transmits the sporozoites of Babesia caballi and/or Babesia (Theileria equi) into the blood of the horse, where they infect RBCs. Grow in RBCs till lyse RBC, then infect the next RBC. (Theileria infects lymphocytes and THEN RBCs)
CSs of equine piroplasmosis? (acute vs chronic)Acute - signs of hemolysis (petechia, edema, icteric, colic, etc.). Chronic- non-specific, weight loss, enlarged spleen due to extravascular hemolysis.
how do you dx piroplasmosis?blood smear (dont always see it), serology, PCR, cELISA (standard test for screening and detection). Seroconversion 8-11 days after infection. After tx cELISA can stay positive for two years
standard test for screening and detection of piroplasmosis?cELISA (must test neg before being imported)
Tx of piroplasmosis?imidocarb (most effective), diminazene aceturate, oxytetracycline. acute infxn= supportive care.