Equine Med- Diagnostics

drraythe's version from 2016-04-29 15:07


Question Answer
what color tube for a CBC?purple top (EDTA)
what is the #1 WBC in horses?neutrophils
what does a CBC eval?4 things- the 3 cell types and fibrinogen. So, WBC (leukogram), RBC, Platelets, Fibrinogen
normal RBC thing which might be abnormal in other sp?rouleaux formation
why do we care about fibrinogen?marker protein for inflammation in horses
if the platelet count is really low on the CBC machine, it might just be...clumping
fibrinogen is a _________ phase proteinacute
is fibrinogen a marker for acute or chronic inflammation?chronic- Delayed behind changes to leukogram, Generally 3-7 days
Which color tube for serum chem panel?She said Red top tube (no anticoag) ( can be green top (sodium heparin) or at least in small animal hospital we use that, so, uh.)
4 main things serum chem tests?proteins, enzymes (liver, renal, mm), electrolytes, glucose
what does it mean if albumin is high? low?High= DEHYDRATION. Low= malnutrition, loss.
what does it mean if globulins are high?chronic antigenic stimulation (takes about 2 weeks to produce, so def chronic)
what are the 4 liver enzymes the chem panel tests for?SDH (most sensitive!!), GGT, AST, ALP
wha are the 2 renal enzymes/products chem panel tests for?Creatinine, BUN
what are the 2 muscle enzymes chem panel tests for?CK, AST
5 electrolytes the serum panel tests for?Na, K, Cl, Ca, P, HCO3
what happens to the WBCs (Neuts) if there is acute inflammation? Chronic?ACUTE: decreased, +/- some bands. CHRONIC: inc of mature neutrophils
how will WBC morphology be affected by acute inflammation? Chronic?ACUTE: +/- toxic changes, CHRONIC: WNL
how is PCV affected by acute inflammation? Chronic?ACUTE: WNL. CHRONIC: mildly dec (>20%)
how will platelet count be affected by acute inflammation? Chronic?ACUTE: WNL. CHRONIC: inc
how will fibrinogen be affected by acute inflammation? Chronic?ACUTE: WNL*(depends on dz in question and severity) CHRONIC: inc
how will globulins be affected by acute inflammation? Chronic?ACUTE: WNL. CHRONIC: inc
3 situations where ANTIBODIES would be inc?exposure, active infxn, vaccination
where are Abs, what are Abs, When can you detect them?in the serum, they are diff types of immunoglobulins. and although there is variation depending on the type of Ag, it takes an average of 2 weeks to seroconvers (make Abs).. (IgM goes up at first, and then IgG is maintained)
with Immunodiagnostics, what does it mean if you test neg, what does it mean if you test positive?If neg, you have no Abs, so you havent had exposure/infection/vaccination. If you test positive though, you will need to do a titer to understand more
when would you check a titer? explain it.This is if you test positive on an immunodiagnostic test- you need to know what positive means now (were they just exposed, or are they actively infected?) A titer is based on how many times you can dilute it and still get a positive response. A higher titer (higher number, so 1:30 compared to 1:2 dilution) means there are more antibodies.
how might you be able to tell a positive Ab test was from exposure vs infection vs vaccine?hard to do! You usually need to do 2 paired titer samples, about 2 weeks apart. Look for if the titer level inc between the two weeks to know if it is and old exposure (stay the same) or new infection (inc)
how can the immunoglobulin tell you if the Abs are from exposure of active infection?IgM forms first and then igG is sustained, so if IgM probably a fresh infection
with immunodiagnostics, what are you doing with the serum to detect Abs?Abs in the serum, which bind to the lab Ags (it is a standardized Ag that takes years to develop so sensitivity and specificity predetermined)
how does PCR work? downside?Detects the DNA of the pathogen- can use many kinds of samples (Whole blood, fluids, tissues), but is VERYYY pathogen specific (cant PCR for everything- needs to be sthing ur lookin for). Downside- you can detect DNA of a dead thing
how do we detect Ag for a pathogen detection test?use LAB MADE Abs (commercially produced)
how does IFAT work?take Antigen sample from patient, Add in standardized antibody (Ab has floriesence so if it binds you will see it light up) (used in rabies a lot)
how does immunohistochemistry work?take Tissue from patient (antigen) and add stain with Antibody in stain. then look at the histo of it-- will be dyed if positive (used for cancer a lot)