Eponyms -A-B

medmaestro's version from 2015-10-07 21:39


What is an eponym?
An eponym is a word derived from the name of a person, whether real or fictional. A medical eponym is thus any word related to medicine, whose name is derived from a person


SignAssociated conditionsDescription
Abderhalden reactionpregnancyserum reaction;obsolete
Abelin reactionsyphilispresence of arsenical anti-syphilitic;obsolete
Aaron signappendicitisepigastric pain with pressure on McBurney's point
Abadie's signGraves' diseaselevator palpebrae superioris spasm
Abadie's symptomtabes dorsalisabsence of pain on Achilles tendon pressure
Alexander's lawvestibular lesionsdescribes nystagmus in vestibular lesions
Allen's testarterial supply of the handtests for presence of palmar ulnar-radial anastomosis (palmar arch)
Apley grind testmeniscal lesionsmanoeuvres to elicit knee pain
Arden RatioAn Arden ratio of 1.80 or greater is normal, 1.65 to 1.80 is subnormal, and < 1.65 is significantly subnormal the ratio of the Light peak (Lp) to dark trough (Dt) =Light peak/Dark trough ;is used to determine the normalcy of the results.
Argyll Robertson pupilsneurosyphilislight-near dissociation
Arneth countfolate deficiencylobulation of neutrophil nuclei(The Arneth count or Arneth index describes the nucleus of a type of white blood cell called a neutrophil in an attempt to detect disease;named after Josef Arneth. Neutrophils typically have two or three lobes. In general, older neutrophils have more lobes than younger neutrophils.)
The Asboe-Hansen sign (also known as "indirect Nikolsky sign" or "Nikolsky II sign")acute bullous lichen planusbullae extension of a blister to adjacent unblistered skin when pressed( Due to fragility of the roof of the blister Asboe Hansen sign is usually negative in Hailey-Hailey disease and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome.)
Aschheim–Zondek testnormal pregnancyoestral reaction in mouse injected with pregnant urine
Aschoff bodyrheumatic feverfoci of interstitial inflammatiuon in the myocardium and elsewhere
Ashby techniquehaemolysisagglutination test for erythrocyte survival
Auenbrugger's signpericardial effusionbulging epigastrium
Auer rodsacute myeloid leukemiacytoplasmic inclusions in myeloblasts
Auspitz's signpsoriasispunctate bleeding when scales are scraped
Austin Flint murmuraortic insufficiencymid-diastolic rumble heard at apex


Question Answer Column 3
Babinski signAbnormal plantar reflexdorsiflexion of the hallux with fanning of the remaining phalanges upon soft stimulation of the lateral plantar surface of the foot
Bainbridge reflexnormal physiologyincrease in heart rate with increase in circulating blood volume
Balbiani ringsRNA transcriptionlarge chromosome puff indicating site of RNA transcription
Ballance's signabdominal/splenic traumapercussive dullness left flank, LUQ, percussive resonance right flank
Bancroft's signdeep vein thrombosispain on anterior, but not lateral, compression of calf
Bárány testvertigo, vestibular dysfunctionnystagmus elicited by hot or cold irrigation of ear canal(COWS-Cold-nystagmus to Opposite side;Warm-nystagmus to Same side)
Barlow's manoeuvrehip dysplasiadislocation on adduction of hip
Bart haemoglobinindicates a specific cause of death in some stillbornsLoss of all four alpha-globin genes (total alpha-thalassemia) leads to severely anemic stillborn babies with small amounts of an abnormal hemoglobin composed of four gamma sub-units (Bart's Hemoglobin)
Bastian–Bruns signspinal cord transactionloss of muscle tone and reflexes below lesion level
Battle's signbasal skull fracturemastoid ecchymosis
Beau's linesmultiple, including traumatransverse ridges on nails
Beck's triadcardiac tamponadehypotension, increased central venous pressure (JVP), distant heart sounds
Becker's signthyrotoxicosisvisible pulsation of retinal arteries
Beevor's signspinal trauma at T10, ALS,FSMDcaudal movement of navel on cervical flexion


Question Answer Column 3
Bekhterev-Jacobsohn reflexpyramidal tract lesionsstroking dorsal radial skin, with forearm in supination, elicits wrist and finger flexion
Bekhterev-Mendel reflexpyramidal tractlesionstoe flexion on percussion of dorsum of foot
Berger wave (rhythm)normal physiologyelectroencephalographic alpha wave
Bezold-Jarisch reflexeffect of certain alkaloidsapnea, bradycardia, hypotension
Bielschowsky's head tilt testlesions of cranial nerve IVtest for palsy of superior oblique muscle
Bing's signpyramidal tract lesionsextension of the great toe on pricking the dorsum of the foot with a pin
Biot's respirationbrain stem herniationquick shallow respirations followed by period of apnea
Bitot's spotsvitamin A deficiencyspots of keratin deposition in the conjunctiva
Bjerrum scotomaglaucomacomet shaped visual field defect,extending temporally from the physiological blind spot
Blumberg signperitonitisrebound tenderness
Boas' pointgastric ulcerdermal hyperaesthesia just left of T12
Boas' signacute cholecystitisdermal hyperaesthesia at inferior angle of R scapula
Bodansky unitNormal serum concentrations in adults are 1.5 to 4.5 Bodansky units; in children, 5 to 14 Bodansky units(now,30-120 International Units)unit of alkaline phosphatase concentration in blood(The Bodansky unit is an obsolete measure of alkaline phosphatase concentration in blood. It is defined as the quantity of alkaline phosphatase that liberates 1mg of phosphate ion during the first hour of incubation with a buffered substrate containing sodium β-glycerophosphate.[1] This technique was the first test to measure blood alkaline phosphatase levels, and was developed by Aaron Bodansky in the early 1930s)
Boston's signthyrotoxicosisspasmodic ptosis on downward gaze
Bouchard's nodesosteoarthritisbony outgrowths on dorsa of proximal interphalangeal joints
Bracht-Wachter bodiesinfective endocarditisyellow-white spots in the myocardium
Branham's signAV Fistulapressing on proximal portion of AV fistula results in bradycardia (the Nicoladoni sign, also Branham sign and Nicoladoni-Israel-Branham sign, is the slowing of the heart rate in response to (manual) compression of an arteriovenous fistula)
Braxton Hicks contractionnormal pregnancy"false labour". sporadic contractions beginning as early as mid 1st trimester


Question Answer Column 3
Brewer infarctspyelonephritisdark red wedge shaped areas on kidney section resembling infarcts
Brissaud's reflexpyramidal tract lesionsplantar stimulation elicits contraction of tensor fasciae latae
Broadbent inverted sign Left atrial hypertrophy : systole palpable in posterior chest wall
Broadbent signadhesive pericarditisrecession of Left inferior intercostal spaces
Broca aphasiadevelopmental or other pathology of various frontal cortical areasexpressive aphasia
Brodie-Trendelenburg percussion testvaricose veinssuperficial vein is percussed proximally; if impulse is felt over vein distally, valvular incompetence is present
Brodie-Trendelenburg testvaricose veinsidentifies level of valvular incompetence
Brudziński neck signmeningitisneck flexion elicits hip and knee flexion
Brudziński cheek signmeningitispressure beneath zygoma elicits flexion of forearm
Brudziński symphyseal signmeningitispressure over symphisis pubis elicits knee, hip flexion and leg abduction
Brudziński reflexmeningitispassive flexion of knee to abdomen elicits flexion of contralateral hip and knee
Bruit de Rogerventricular septal defectloud pansystolic murmur
Bruns ataxiafrontal lobe lesionsdifficulty moving feet in contact with floor, tendency to fall backwards
Bruns nystagmuscerebellopontine angle tumor, vestibular schwannomanystagmus that coarsens in amplitude on lateral gaze
Brushfield spotsDowns' syndrome or non-pathologicalgreyish-white spots at periphery of iris
Burton linelead poisoningblue discolouration of the gingival border